Canadian Orienteering Federation Officials Training ProgramLevel 100
COF Credential Framework
CertificationQualificationLevel 100Organize and plan C eventsLevel 200Organize and plan B events. Control C eventsLevel 300Organize and plan regional level Canada Cup events such as Western Canadian Orienteering Championships (WCOC). Control B eventsLevel 400Organize and plan all events including Canadian Orienteering Championships (COC), North American Orienteering Championships (NAOC), World Ranking Events (WRE), World Orienteering Championships (WOC), World Masters Orienteering Championships (WMOC) etc. Control Canada Cup events to Regional levelLevel 500Control all events. Act as a World Ranking Event Advisor
100 Level Requirements
To be considered as a candidate for the 100 Level Officials course, the candidate must meet the following pre-requisites:Participated in at least five C eventsParticipated in at least two Canada Cup or B eventsServed as a volunteer at two events, Canada Cup, B or C
To become a certified 100 level official, the candidate must complete the following requirements:Attend all sessions of the 100 level courseAchieve a score 80% on the 100 level examPlan a beginner course and an intermediate course complying to C event standards Act as an event director and course planner for a C event.
Learning ObjectivesBasic structure and objectives of the COF Long Term Athlete Development Plan (LTAD)Characteristics of Canada Cup, B, and C eventsRoles and responsibilities of event director, course planner, and controllerBest practices for organizing a C event, including registration, simple starts, timing, and safetyBasics of planning beginner, intermediate, and advanced courses for the Sprint, Middle, and Long formats
Long Term Athlete Development Plan
The Long Term Athlete Development model is an initiative by the COF to pursue the following goals:Offer a sport which everyone can pursue at their desiredlevel, recreational or competitiveDevelop orienteering in a positive manner paying heed to the unique Canadian culture, landscape,and history while taking into consideration the changing international orienteering trendsContinually have better results at championship events at the Junior World Orienteering Championships (JWOC), World Orienteering Championships (WOC), and World Masters Orienteering Championships (WMOC)Grow by attracting people of all ages to the sport
LTAD Framework for Orienteering 9 Stages
ACTIVE START 06 years String Course, Course 1 - majority of navigation by an adult
Learn fundamental movements and link them together into playDevelop familiarity with maps, controls and punching systemsDevelop familiarity with the process of orienteering and prominent features used to navigate (trails, streams, large objects, boulders) Design activities that help children to feel competent and comfortable participating in a variety of fun and challenging sports and activities in differing terrain At upper age levels encourage trail walking/running and some offtrail activities, such as jungle courses (string courses) or course 1 with a parent or coachFocus on skill development and participation; no competitive elementsParticipation awards only
FUNdamentals 79 years (String Course, Course 1 - some independent navigation)
Activities and programs need to maintain a focus on fun, and formal competition should only be minimally introducedLearn to orient the map to northLearn to relate features on the map to the physical terrain in the forestLearn more extensive set of basic map features (trails, streams, fields, boulders, cliffs, buildings, fences)Develop proper running techniques onand offtrail by having youngsters follow a flagged route through somewhat dense forest, over and under fallen trees, over and under fencesLearn safety rules of orienteering
LEARN TO TRAIN 1012 years (Course 1 - independently or with shadow)
Practise feature familiarization and recognition, e.g., relate map symbols and colours to the terrain and viceversaLearn how to orient the map using linear terrain featuresLearn to recognize simple handrails in the terrain and how to navigate along themThink ahead; be aware of handrail changes along route Know how start, finish and controls are represented on the mapStart learning international control description symbolsLearn techniques that allow athletes to navigate off trails for short distancesLearn basic route choice tactics and decisionmaking principles, e.g. at every control, have a plan for getting to the next control Introduce rough orienteering. Focus on safe orienteering but occasionally point out where youngsters can safely run faster
TRAIN TO TRAIN 1 1314 years (Course 2)
Emphasize technical skill development, e.g.holding a bearing while running; map reading by thumb; orienteering with flow and controlPractice following linear features (trails, fences, streams, fields)Learn to make use of features slightly off the handrailsLearn to recognize less obvious handrails, e.g. a ridge system or a valleyPractise simple route choice, e.g.cutting directly through the forest (offtrail) for short distances, less than 100 meters, rather than taking a longer route following a handrail RJT (run, jump, throw): emphasize terrain running techniquejumping; hopping on, off and over obstacles; running up, down and contouring across slopes; climbing over terrain barriers
TRAIN TO TRAIN 2 1516 years (Course 3)Practise contour interpretation; begin to distinguish upslopes from down in mapped land formsNavigate using rough map reading, i.e., concentrate on large contour features offtrailBegin to identify contour features in the forest, e.g. small and large hills, highest points in the terrain Learn symbols for terrain runnability (colour code and special markings)Use rough compass technique to maintain direction through the forest towards obvious handrails less than 300 meters distantChoose reliable attack pointsUse precision compass to travel accurately from attack points to controls
LEARN TO COMPETE 1718 years (Course 8 Female, Course 9 Male)
Practice holding elevation and taking controls when running across slopesPractice simplifying, enlarging, and extending the controlContinue to practise contour interpretation and precision map readingPractise distance estimation; use pace counting for distances under 200 meters and practice intuitive estimation of longer distancesPractice taking difficult controls inless detailed terrain with few catching featuresManage inner dialogue while orienteering; visualize staying positive and focused; learn how to refocus thoughts after making mistakes or catching up with competitorsLearn OCAD, if interested in mapping/coursesetting (learn how a coursesetter thinks)
TRAIN TO COMPETE 1925 years (Course 9 Female, Course 10 Male)Continue to practice taking difficult controls inless detailed terrain with few catching features Move towards bold execution rather than always practicing safe, controlled, mistakefree orienteering. Find out how fast it is possible to orienteer without continually making mistakes 1920 year olds are encouraged to race up into senior men/women categories in training to gain experience at the elite levelAdjust speed according to the type of terrain and individual strengths
TRAIN TO WIN 25+ years (Course 9 Female, Course 10 Male)
Make advance planning automatic. For each leg, decide on an execution plan and carry it outMaintain high level of proficiency in technical skills by continuously refining, improvising, and personalizing themPractise bold orienteeringDisplay the highest possible level ofconsistency and control over complex decision makingProvide positive role models to younger athletes
ACTIVE FOR LIFE 17 80+years(All Courses)
This stage can be entered at any age. Athletes who have completed the Learn to Train stage and want to remain active in the sport at a recreational level should be encouraged to continue as both athletes and officials. Adult beginners can be offered modified programs that take into consideration their specific cognitive, life skill, physical and technical abilities.Maintain lifelong physical activity and participation in sportContinue participating in orienteering competitions, in addition to becoming expert in other aspects of the sport, e.g. course setting, mapping, event organization, coachingWork/volunteer at the provincial or federal level to support orienteering and stay active in the orienteering familyCompete at international agegraded competitions, e.g. World Masters Orienteering Championships and other multiday events
An Integrated Development System for OrienteeringOfficials are a part of a system that includes parents, athletes, clubs, coaches and Orienteering Canada. As officials, you are responsible toBe educatedHave a thorough understanding of the LTAD principles for orienteeringUnderstand where and how officials fit in to the LTADCommit to supporting athletes in achieving their goals
Characteristics of Canadian Orienteering EventsIn Canada, there are three levels of orienteering events: Canada Cup eventsB eventsC events
Canada Cup EventsHighest level orienteering events in Canada (national, regional, and provincial championships) Often multi-day events composed of races from all three disciplines of orienteering (Sprint, Middle, and Long) Attract participants from outside the local club. Generally include a banquet, accommodation for out-of-town orienteers, assigned start times, advance registration, and promotion to orienteering community and general public. Require several key officials (event director, course planner, controller, start chief, finish chief, registrar, etc.) and a large number of volunteers Ten courses for Long and Middle distance events and five courses for Sprint events
B EventsGenerally single day, weekend events held on forest maps within an hour or two of the local clubs city. Primarily attended by local club members Less formal than Canada Cup events.Ten-course Canada Cup format is usually compressed down to between three and five courses. Fewer volunteers than Canada Cup events.
Least formal of the three levels of Canadian orienteering events Least amount of organization. Held over a couple of hours on a weekday evening or weekend morning. Most often held in an urban park for members of the local orienteering club. One to three courses and may use one of the standard point-to-point formats (Sprint, Middle, Long) or an alternative orienteering format, such as night-O, score-O, Memory-O, or Corridor-O.
Why are C events important?Offer all orienteers opportunities for social and physical activity Provide opportunities to acquire and maintain orienteering skills on technically sound coursesRecruit newcomers to orienteeringProvide novice and junior orienteers non-intimidating learning experiences Provide novice officials with positive learning opportunities
Clubs across Canada use a wide range of procedures and practices to run their C events. This 100 Level Officials Training Course aims to standardize the course planning and safety aspects of C events while allowing for regional flexibility in other aspects.
Orienteering events are typically organized by a team of three officials Event DirectorCourse Planner Controller
Event Official Roles as Defined by the COF Rules5.1.1 The event director shall take responsibility for the event. The event director shall appoint such further officials as are necessary and see that they understand and fulfill their duties. 5.1.2 The course planner shall design the courses and be responsible for preparing the control markers, punches, competition maps, control description lists and for the correct placing of the control markers and punches prior to the event. 5.1.3 The controller shall check the quality of the map and to recommend necessary revisions; Check the start and finish areas and all control locations for correct position and suitability; Check that the general standard of the course is in accordance with current rules and standards of course planning; Check that the course as planned is fair to all participants particularly with regard to the quality of map detail; Check that the terrain and course are safe for participants with respect to hazards and dangerous locations.
C Event Orienteering OfficialsFor C events, the roles of the event director and course planner are often combinedThe role of a C event controller is to mentor the event director/course planner and review his/her courses. A C event controller must have at least 200 level certification.
Officials and Volunteers Required for a C Event
PositionNumber RequiredQualificationsRoleEvent Director/Course Planner1COF O100 Level OfficialPlan courses, check control locations, arrange for map printing, place flags, and recruit necessary volunteersController1COF O200 Level OfficialEnsure courses are fair, safe, and comply with C event standardsRegistrar~ 1 for every 100 participants expectedNoneCollect fees and record names of participantsEnsure membership status of all participantsStart/Finish official (one person may perform both roles)~ 1 for every 100 participants expectedNoneRecord startersEnsure appropriate interval between startsRecord finishersBe aware of participants who did not report to the finish Beginner Clinics~ 2 for every 100 participants expectedExperienced orienteerProvide basic instruction in map reading and orienteering to beginners
VolunteersAll orienteering clubs in Canada rely on volunteers to donate their time and share their expertise (orienteering and other skills)It is critical that all volunteers are treated with respectAssume that all volunteers are trying their best within their level of expertise and experienceRecognize and acknowledge good workEmphasize volunteer contributions and their importance to the success of the eventRemember that volunteers have personal and professional obligations that take precedence over their orienteering commitmentsSay thank-you
Scheduling EventsC events are often scheduled on a standard day and at a standard time as a part of a weekly or monthly orienteering series. The date and location of C events is usually determined before the orienteering season by the local clubs executive or event coordinators. Event coordinators must consider the suitability of each map for the time of year when the event will be run; will the event be run at night? Will it be run in the snow? Will the vegetation be unpleasantly high? Will the area be filled with a large number of other users? Will the area be occupied by another organizations event?Once the schedule has been arranged, the events coordinator will attempt to match a course planner and controller to each event based on the proximity of the maps to their work/home, availability, and level of experience.
PermissionsOrienteering relies on the generosity of landowners to grant access to their propertyThis includes both privately and publicl...