Camera Shutter Aperture

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Here comes the LIGHT

Photo = light

Graph = draw or write

Photography = light writing or light drawing

Camera Obscura

Abelardo Morrell, Camera Obscura: View of Central Park Looking North-Fall, 2008

Abelardo Morrell, Camera Obscura: View of Manhattan, 2008

The Shutter or exposure time (think - eyelid) You adjust the length of time the shutter remains open to control the amount of light that reach the lightsensitive surface.

Each full stop shutter setting is half or double the time of The next one.

The Leaf or between-the-lens-shutter

The Focal-Plane Shutter

Actual time in seconds

Shutter speeds your camera may display Full stop 1/3 stop 1 1.3 1.6 2 2.5 3 4 5 6 8 10 13 15 20 25 1/2 stop 1 1.5 2 3

1 sec


1/2 sec


1/4 sec


4 6 8 11 15 20

1/8 sec


1/15 sec


The Term Stop in photography refers to a change in illumination, whether the shutter speed or the aperture Is change to achieve it.

The agreed standards for shutter speeds are: * 1/1000 s * 1/500 s * 1/250 s * 1/125 s * 1/60 s * 1/30 s * 1/15 s * 1/8 s * 1/4 s * 1/2 s *1s

Each standard increment either doubles the amount of light (longer time) or halves the amount of light (shorter time). For example, if you move from 1 sec to 1/2 second, you have effectively halved the amount of light entering the shutter.

TIP: Think about what is GOING to happen, rather than trying to catch up to what has already happened.

Motion slows at the peak Of an action that reverses

Additional setting: Bulb setting (B) Keeps the shutter open as long as the release button is held down. Time setting (T) opens the shutter with one press of the release, and close it with another.

Additional setting: Bulb setting (B) Keeps the shutter open as long as the release button is held down. Time setting (T) opens the shutter with one press of the release, and close it with another.

Fast Shutter Speed = Freeze the actionLeft: 1/3200" Right 1/6400" - an important difference in sharpness

Slow shutter speed suggested movement motion (blur). - a longer time passes from the moment the shutter opens till the moment it closes. More time is available for movement in the subject to be recorded by the camera.

Oliver Follmi, Pilgrimage to Bodghaya, India, 2002 Slow shutter speed (long exposure)

Simon Bruty, Turin Winter Olympics Panning (moving the camera to follow the subject) & use slow shutter speed (long exposure).

Stefan Newell, Coloured Lights in Gran Canaria Long exposure (slow shutter speed) & move camera against stationary objects

The Aperture is the size of the lens opening that control the brightness of the light that reaches the sensor or film. (think pupil of an eye) The size of an aperture is indicate by its f-number or f-stop. Lens is said to be stopped down when the size of the aperture is decrease. Fast lenses allow you to shoot more easily in low light or at higher shutter speeds. (large aperture) The faster the lenses = the more expensive (f/1.4 is faster than f/2)

Shutter speeds your camera may display Aperture in full stop f/1.4 1/2 stop f/1.4 f/1.7 f/2 f/2.3 f/2.8 f/3.4 f/4 f/4.7 1/3 stop f/1.4 f/1.6 f/1.8 f/2 f/2.2 f/2.5 f/2.8 f/3.2 f/3.5 f/4 f/4.5 f/5




Depth of field is the area from near to far In a scene that is acceptably sharp in a photograph.

This lens has depth-of-field scale

Most camera will automatically Show the scene through the widest aperture Tip: check your camera manual. It may have depth of field preview button!

Depth of field increases as the lens stopped down to smallest aperture (here at f/16)

Oliver Follmi

Large aperture, less depth of field blur the background--good for portrait

Small aperture = more depth of field > good for detail.

Using Shutter and Aperture together Both shutter speed & Aperture affect the amount of light entering the camera. Shutter Speed Aperture = Time = size of the lens opening

Light Compensation You can change one setting as long as you Change the other in the opposite way. You can use a larger aperture if you need a faster shutter speed or smaller aperture if you Need a slower shutter speed. Remember!Shutter Speed affects the sharpness of moving objects Aperture affects depth of field-sharpness from near to far.

F/16 > small aperture = Deep depth of field 1/8 sec> slow shutter speed = motion burred

F/4 > medium aperture = Some motion sharp, less sharp background 1/125 sec> medium shutter speed = freeze some motion but the exposure is still too long to show the motion of the birds wings sharply.

F/2 > large aperture = Shallow depth of field = out of focus background. 1/500 sec > fast shutter speed = freeze all motion & produced motion sharp.






I = standard exposure levelShutter Priority Aperture Priority = you set the desired shutter speed the camera sets the aperture = you set the desired aperture the camera sets the shutter speed

Exposure Compensation -Bright situations -Dark situations

0 compensation

+ 1.5 compensation

James Nachwey, Alabama, 1994 - Prisoner on the chain gang

Oliver Follmi

Simon Bruty, Embassy World Darts Championship