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- - A B C pH HX pH HX log = + Na - RCOO CaO pH log = (aq) HNO COOH(aq) CH Ka (aq) HNO - × / COOH(aq) CH - × / pH HNO COOH CH

C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

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Page 1: C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

- -

ABC

pH

HX

pHHXlog =

+Na-RCOO

CaO

pH

log =

(aq)HNOCOOH(aq)CH

Ka

(aq)HNO-×/

COOH(aq)CH-×/

pHHNOCOOHCH

Page 2: C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

- -

HAHX

HA [ ] HX

pHHA [ ] HX

HA [ ] HX

HA [ ] HX-molL

(aq)+ F(aq)+HHF(aq)

Ka

pHlog =

ON

pH=log =

Page 3: C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

- -

(aq)HNOHCN(aq)

Ka

HCN(aq)-×/

(aq)HNO-×/

HXC

pH

HXlog =

HAHBHC

HA

Page 4: C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

- -

-×Ka =

(aq)COO(aq) + CH+HCOOH(aq)CH

(aq)OH+(aq)+NaO(l)O(s) + HNa

pHlog =

+NaSOHRC

SO

pH

log =

HF(aq)HOCl(aq)

Ka

HF (aq)-×/

HOCl(aq)-×/

pHHF(aq)HOCl(aq)

Page 5: C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

- -

(aq)+C

B(s)(aq) ++D+BD(s) +

(V)E+A+(aq) + A(s)

+B +(aq) + B(s)

-C +(aq) + C +(aq)

-D +(aq) + D(s)

.

V-=(aq) ++V Zn+=(aq) ++Cu

emf

(aq)+Fe(aq) ++Sn+Fe(aq) ++Sn

V/-=/ Fe)+Fe(EV/-=/ Sn)+(SnE

Page 6: C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

- -

+Pt+rCV)(E

+Ag+(aq) + Ag(s)

+Pt +(aq) + Pt(s)

-Cr +(aq) + Cr +(aq)

-Al +(aq) + Al(s)

(V)E-Fe +(aq) + Fe(s)

+Cu +(aq) + Cu(s)

- /Zn +(aq) + Zn(s)

(g)(aq) + O+HO(l)H

ISOHIINOIII* *

(s)A(aq) ++C+A(s) +C

(V)E+A+(aq) + A(s)

+B +(aq) + B(s)

-C +(aq) + C(s)

-D +(aq) + D(s)

E

V+=(aq) ++Cu

V/+=(s) EAg+Ag

emf

Page 7: C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

- -

IMnOIIHClOIII

pH

M(s)

MCuMg

V/+=/ Cu)+Cu(EV/-=/ Fe)+Fe(EV/-=)Mg/+Mg(E

Page 8: C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

- -

ABC

)s(Fe(aq) ++Zn+Fe+)s(Zn

V/-=/ Zn)+nZ(E

AA

(s) + C(s)OAl

Page 9: C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

- -

NaCl(s)(s)OHCHCl(g)(l)HC(s)SiO

SiC.

-g.cm

-g.cmb)-g.cma)

(s)OHC

SiC.

Page 10: C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

- -

LiFKBr

SiOOAlOHONaOFeMgOAu

????

pmpm+Na-×Cl-×+Ca?-O?-×

+Ca-Opm

Page 11: C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

- -

KTi >Ca >

)l(HC,)lO(H,)sCl(K,)s(OC,(s)SiO

MgClNaCl

CHCl

NH

A+

FCl

MgO

ONa

pmpm+MgF

+NaO+KCl

Page 12: C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

- -

NaCl(s)

SiC.

-O

NaCl

ONa

pmpm+NaCl+Ca-O

Page 13: C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

- -

K

(g)NO(g)ON

(g)NH(g)H(g) +N

Page 14: C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

- -

(g)NH(g)(g) + NH

×=, K=, K-×=K

AB

AB(g)(g)(g) + BA

(g)SO(g)O(g) +SO

KC

KC

(g)SO(g)O(g)SO

-molL-×-×-×

Page 15: C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

- -

(g)HI(g)I(g) +H

C

(g)OS(g) +O(g)SO

KC

(g)O(g)SO(g)SO-molL-×-×-×

KC

(g)SO(g)(g) + OSOSO

Page 16: C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

- -

(g)NH(g)H(g) +N

NH

(g)NO(g)NO (g) + O

KC

NONOO-molL×

KC

O(g)H(g)(g) + Oa) H

b) H C = CH (g) +

c)

Pta

d

d)

Page 17: C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

- -

ABC

ABC

-kJ.mol-H =(g)NH(g)H(g) +N

AB

(g)ON(g)ON

I

II

Page 18: C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

- -

AB(g)(g)(g) + BA

(g)NH(g)H(g) +N

KC

(g)N(g)H(g)NH-molL

KC

Page 19: C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

- -

Page 20: C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

- -

BCA

A-×]=+[H-×]=+[H-] =+[HpH-] =+[H

-×]=-[OH-]=-[OH-×-]=-][OH+[H

-mol.L/=[HX] =Xmol H=×gHX

=-×log-pH =]+log[H-pH=-×=×] =+[H] =M+[H

-×]=+[H-×]=+[H-] =+[HpH-] =+[H

-×]=-[OH-]=-[OH-×-]=-][OH+[H

Ka

COOHCH]+[H]+[HpH

HA [ < ] HXHA [ > ] HX

HA [ < ] HXHA [ < ] HX

Page 21: C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

- -

Ka=

-molL+H

=-×log-pH =]+log[H-pH=

AB

-×]=+[H-×]=+[H-] =+[HpH-] =+[H

-×]=-[OH-]=-[OH-×-]=-][OH+[H

ABC

log =

-mol.L=[HX] =Xmol H=×gHX

=-×log-pH =]+log[H-pH=-×=×] =+[H] =M+[H

Page 22: C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

- -

HB

= %× =

HC

-molL-×] =+[H=-×]COO] = [CH+[HKa=

-molL] =[OHO][Na] =[OH-molL=O]=[Na

=-×log-pH =]+log[H-pH=-×]=+[H-]=+[H-]=-][OH+[H

-×]=+[H-×]=+[H-] =+[HpH-] =+[H

-×]=-[OH-]=-[OH-×-]=-][OH+[H

HFKa

HOCl(aq)

pH

Page 23: C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

- -

> B > A+D > C+B+A+C

DB

emf = Ec Ea = (- ) = + V

+Fe+Sn

(aq) +++Sn

(g) +(aq) + O+HO(l)H

(g) +(aq) + O+HO(l)H

Page 24: C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

- -

IS=+IIN=+IIIC= +

+A

CA

(aq) ++CuCu(s)

emf = Ec Ea = ( ) = + V

IMn= +IICl= +IIIC= +

pH

(aq)-OH(g) +O(l) + OH

+Zn

emf = Ec Ea = - (- ) = + V

ABC

Page 25: C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

- -

Zn

(aq)+Fe

)s(Fe+(aq)+Fe

CO

Page 26: C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

- -

(s)OHCHCl(g)(l)HC

AB

CD

SiOg=×g Ros

OFe

ONaOHAuSiO

Page 27: C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

- -

=d =

pmr ==-×+Ca-O

TiCa >K>

(l)HC,O(l)H,(s)CO

F

KCl

Page 28: C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

- -

=d =

ONa

Page 29: C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

- -

K

- kJ

×=K

AB

K =

-×==K

K

Page 30: C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

- -

K =

-×==K

K

K =

×==K

K

NH

bCd

C

B

Page 31: C B A...C B A pH HX log = HX pH RCOO-Na+ CaO pH log = CH COOH(aq) HNO (aq) Ka / ×-HNO (aq) / ×-CH COOH(aq) CH COOH HNO pH

- -

K

BA

III

K =

-×==K

K