By Tracey Burns
Holocaust What does it mean?
"Holocaust" is a word of Greek origin meaning "sacrifice by fire."
The Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic, state sponsored persecution and murder of approximately six million Jews by the Nazis.
The Nazis believed that Germans were "racially superior" and that the Jews, deemed "inferior," were "life unworthy of life."
During the era of the Holocaust, the Nazis also targeted other groups because of their perceived "racial inferiority": Roma (Gypsies), the handicapped, and some of the Slavic peoples (Poles, Russians, and others).
Other groups were persecuted on political and behavioral grounds, among them Communists, Socialists, Jehovah's Witnesses, and homosexuals.
Holocaust VocabularyAllies nations that joined the war again Nazi GermanyAntisemitism prejudice towards the JewsAuschwitz largest Nazi concentration campAxis nations that joined forces with GermanyConcentration camps prison camps built to hold Jews, gypsies, and anyone racially undesirableDeath marches a forced march with brutal treatment by the SSExtermination camp camps that were equipped with gassing facilities and crematoria for the mass murder of Jews.Final Solution code words used by Nazis referring to the destruction of the Jewish people in EuropeGenocide liquidation of a peopleGestapo the secret State Police of the Third ReichGhettos sections of towns in which Jews were forced to liveHitler, Alolf Leader of the Third Reich, Chancellor of Germany from 1933-1945Kristallnacht Night of Broken GlassSwastika Nazi insignia
** Students will be responsible for the vocabulary
Timeline of Important EventsJanuary 1933 Hitler appointed Chancellor of GermanyMarch 19331st concentration camp at Dachau establishedAugust 1936Olympics in Berlin all Anti-Semitic signs removedJuly 1937Buchenwald camp establishedMarch 1938Austria annexed by GermanyNovember 1938Kristallnacht Night of Broken Glass2 days later government requires Jews to repay all damagesMarch 1939Germany invades CzechoslovakiaJune 1939United States refuses Jewish refugees aboard S.S. St. LouisAugust 1939Soviet German Non-aggression Pact signedSeptember 1939German army invades Poland WWII beginsSpring 1940Germany invades Denmark, Norway, Belgium, Luxembourg, Netherlands and FranceMay 1940Auschwitz camp opens
Timeline cont.March/April 1940Germany invades North Africa, Yugoslavia & GreeceJune 1941Germany invades Soviet UnionOctober 1941Birkenau added to AuschwitzDecember 1941Japan attacks Pearl HarborGermany declares war on U.S.Early 1942mass murder of Jews in gas chambers beginsJune 1942Treblinka death camp opensMarch 1944Germany invades HungaryJune 1944Allied Powers invade NormandyJuly 1944Soviet army liberates death camp at MaidanekOctober 1944Rebellion at AuschwitzJanuary 1945Soviets liberate Auschwitz, Buchanwald and DachauApril 1945Hitler commits suicideMay 1945Germany surrendersNovember 1945war crimes at Nuremberg
Bergen-Belsen CampLocated near Hannover, Germany. The original plan was for Bergen-Belsen to be a model camp where the Red Cross and other international aid organizations could examine the prisoners. That soon changed.It started in 1943 as a concentration camp. The people were brought in from other camps, such as Auschwitz, Piotrkow, and Neuengamme. Jewish women from Neusalz were brought there by train in 1945.Anne Frank and her sister, Margot, died here.Corpses were burned in a crematoria oven.In total, one thousand and seven people were killed there. The camp was liberated on April 15, 1945 by the British forcesAfter the liberation in April, about five thousand more people died from weakness and exhaustion.In September 1945, forty-eight members of the Bergen-Belsen staff were tried.In December, eleven of them were executed.
Liberation of the CampsAs Allied troops moved across Europe, they began to encounter concentration camp prisoners.
Soviet forces were the first to approach a major Nazi camp, Majdanek, in July 1944.
In the summer of 1944, the Soviets also overran the sites of the Belzec, Sobibor, and Treblinka extermination camps. The Soviets liberated Auschwitz, the largest extermination and concentration camp, in January 1945.There was evidence of mass murder in Auschwitz. The Germans had destroyed most of the warehouses, but in the remaining ones the Soviets found personal belongings of the victims. They discovered hundreds of thousands of men's suits, more than 800,000 women's outfits, and more than 14,000 pounds of human hair.
In the following months, the Soviets liberated additional camps in the Baltic states and in Poland
Nuremberg TrialsThe trials began on November 20, 1945.The trials were conducted by a military court in the US, England, SU, France, and at Nuremberg, Germany.Three out of the twenty-two were found not guilty.The trials ended after eleven months on October 1,1946.
Ayer, Eleanor H. and Stephen D. Chicoine. Holocaust From the Ashes. Woodbridge: Blackbirch Press, Inc.,1986.Ayer, Eleanor H. Holocaust: Inferno. Woodbridge: Blackbirch Press, Inc., 1998Botwinick, Rita Steinhart. A History of the Holocaust: From Ideology to Annihilation. Upper Saddle River: Pearson Education Inc., 2004,2001,1996Bachrach, Susan D. Tell Them We Remember: The History of The Holocaust. Canada: Little, Brown, and Company, 1994Berenbaum, Michael. The World Must Know. Boston: Little, Brown and Company, 1993.http://history1900s.about.com/library/holocaust/blcampsbergen.htm About the Project. Nuremberg Trials Project. 2003. http://nuremberg.law.harvard.edu/php/docs_swi.php?DI=1&text=overviewSchlater,P.and M. Mora. Overview of the Trials. The Nuremberg Trials.December 4, 2000. http://www.fatherryan.org/holocaust/nuremburg/NurembergINDEX.htm.Florida Center for Instructional Technology, College of Education, University of Southern Florida. Photos: The Nuremberg Trials. A Teachers Guide to the Holocaust. 2005. http://fcit.coedu.usf.edu/holocaust/resource/gallery/N1945.htm#14465.Holocaust Memorial Museum.Einsatzgruppen. Holocaust Encyclopedia.http://www.ushmm.org/wlc/article.php?lang=en&ModuleId=10005130