by Me Pierre Verge A thesis submitted to the Faculty of ...· Me Pierre Verge A thesis submitted to

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    Me Pierre Verge

    A thesis submitted to the Faculty of Graduate Studies and Research in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Master of Arts.

    Department of Economies and Political Science, McGill University, Montreal. August 3, 1962.

  • M.A.


    Subcontracting at Arbitration


    A comparative study of arbitral decisions

    rendered in the United States, the Canadian Common Law

    Provinces and Quebec over grievances arising--in the

    context of collective agreements that contain no specifie

    provision on the subject--out of Management's action of

    arranging with an outside firm to have it perform work

    hitherto done by members of the bargaining unit. the

    possible effects on future Quebec arbitral awards of a

    recent amendment to the Labour Relations Act (Sec. 10 A,

    Ch. 162 A, R.S.Q. 1941} are also analyzed.


    The occasion tbat led to the present study of arbitral

    decisions on subcontraeting was the discussion initiated by

    the Canadian Manufacturer's Association and revived, in

    particular, at the 1961 Annual Convention of the Canadian

    Bar Association, asto the effect of a recent amendmenttD

    the Labour Relations Act (Sec. 10 A, Ch. 162 A, R.S.Q. 1941)

    extending the terms of an existing Agreement to the new


    employer in the case of "partial of alienation of an under-

    taking": was contracting out aimed at by this new provision?

    Whatever was to be the answer to this particular question,

    subcontracting, of frequent occurrence in our surrounding

    industrial world, stood there as an act that could be regarded,

    at the same time, as one expression of Management's right to

    manage and as an indirect way to avert the terms of an Agreement

    bargained collectively with a Union. Subeontracting questioned

    the very nature of the Agreement. More specifically it was

    asked: how far could Management go in the exercise of its

    recognized right to direct the undertaking "in a manner consistent

    with the terms of the Agreement"? A first glanee at arbitral

  • II

    dealings with the matter developed into a systematic survey

    of arbitral decisions rendered in the United States, the

    Common Law Provinces, and Quebec, with a view of discovering

    differences in approaching the subcontracting issue that could,

    more immediately, help see the local answer, both in terms

    of the legislative amendment and of arbitral rulings, in its

    proper perspective.

    Sources of Part I, dealing mostly with manegerial rights

    and the collective agreement in general, are to be found in

    the Bibliography. Studies of U.S. Awards by prominent

    American arbitrators (Cf. Bibliography) served as a basis

    to Part II. These studies were brought up to date through

    direct consultation of subsequent reported cases. All relevant

    decisions in the 1950-62 Labour Arbitration Cases series were

    studied in connection with Part III (Canadian Common Law

    Provinces awards). The presence of additional privately rendered

    and unreported awards is to be noted, but no practical result

    could be obtained in trying to cover them. The legal context

    of Part IV, where the recent amendment to the Labour Relations

    Act is examined,was discussed with Professor Marie-Louis

    Beaulieu of the Faculty of Law, Laval University, and with

    Me Gerard Vaillancourt, Secretary of the Quebec Relations Board.

    (In particular, Me Vaillancourt expressed his views as to the

    origin of the new amendment. (See P. 66 ). Finally, asto

    arbitral decisions rendered in the Province of Quebec, a survey

    was made--with the cooperation of Mr. Claude Gaudrault, Technical

  • Adviser, Department of Labour of the Province of Quebec--of

    all arbitration awards filed with this Department and listed

    in the "General Report of the Minister of Labour of the

    Province of Quebec" as related to 11managerial rights" for


    the period 1949-50 to 1959-60 {incl.). No decisions dealing

    with subcontracting as the object of a grievance were found.

    There remained the whole field of privately rendered and

    unreported decisions. Those collected constitute the substance

    of Part v. They were communicated by the following persons:

    Hon. Justice Andr Montpetit (HOpital du Sacr-Coeur de

    Cartierville, Dominion Engineering, Sperry Gyroscope awards);

    Hon. Justice Antoine Lamarre and Me carrier Fortin, C.R.,

    of Sherbrooke, (Combustion Superheater); Yvan Legault,

    Executive Secretary, Q.L.F. (Canadien Petrofina); Adrien Plourde,

    Prsident, Syndicat National des Employs de l'Aluminium d'Arvida

    (Aluminum cases); Professor Roger Chartier and Me Denis Levesque

    {Dissenting notes in Dominion Engineering and Combustion

    Superheater cases).

    The present search was oriented by Professor H.D. Woods,

    of the Department of Economies and Political Science at McGill

    University, my tutor, and by Professor J.-Ral Cardin, directeur-

    adjoint, dpartement des relations industrielles, Universit

    Laval. My deepest gratitude goes to Professor Woods and Professor

    Cardin for their learned views and advice and to all those persona

    who cooperated in discussing particular aspects of the study or

    communicating arbitral awards.

    June 1962 Pierre Verge

  • Foreword.



    Part I: Subcontracting Defined in its Setting.

    A Introduction

    1. Importance of Subcontracting issue

    a) in general;

    b) particularly in Quebec;

    2. Definition

    a) Strict def. of "Subcontracting'*;

    b) Subcontracting distinguisbed from

    1. "the partial operation of an

    undertaking by anotber";

    2. contract "of services";

    3. direct "lay-off";

    3. Scope of study

    a) Transfer of work to supervisory

    personnel studied only incidentally;


  • b) Study limited to agreements without

    specifie provision with respect to

    contracting out;

    c) At the arbitral level only (except

    in Quebec);

    d) Comparative study of arbitral decisions:


    U.S.--Canadian Common Law Provinces--Quebec.

    4. Nature of problem:

    a) Management's and Union's main


    b) An application of manegerial prerogatives

    in a collective agreement context.

    B Management's rights Theories.

    C Arbitrability and General Conception of the

    Collective Agreement.

    Part II: U.S. Awards

    A Introduction

    1. Importance of specifie criteria in current


  • 2. Respective place of "reserved rights" and

    "implied limitations" theories in U.S.


    B Study of decision where

    1. Management's right to contract out retained

    with qualification (s) ("Reserved rights"


    2. Implied limitations to Management' a right

    to contract out are dominant;


    3. Decisions based upon examination of objective


    4. Criteria for judging contracting out cases.

    C Conclusion

    1. The current place of management's rights


    a) strict "reserved rights" theory abandoned;

    b) moderate "implied limitations" theory

    almost universally accepted;

    2. --"Economy" reconsidered;

    --"Good faith" and "efficiency" in U.S. awards.

    Part III: Canadian Common Law Provinces Awards

  • A Introduction

    1. Study of arbitral decisions over issues

    involving the allotment of work outside unit,

    to supervisory personnel.

    B Decisions on contracting out "stricto sensu"

    1. "Reserved rights" theory:

    a) Strict adherence

    --simple cases

    --cases opposing "master-servantn to

    "independent contractor" relationship;

    b) Other factors considered (one case).

    2. "Implied limitations" theory.

    C Summacy


    Part IV: Province of Quebec: New Section 10 A of Ch. 162 A,

    R.S .Q. 1941

    Introduction: Civil Code Setting and Statutory Laws

    Sec. 10 A, Ch. 162 A:

    A The text of sec. 10 A;

    B Possible effects on contracting out issue;

    C Its sources

  • 1. Legislative

    a) France

    b) Other Canadian Provinces

    c) Other P.Q. laws

    2. Jurisprudence

    a) Province of Quebec

    1) Cobra case

    2) Vachon case

    3) Brown case

    4) Coll in case

    b) France (after 1918 law)

    c) B.C. award

    D Interpretation

    1. Me Pigeon's views;

    2. Possible distinction based upon "entreprise"


    Part V: Quebec Arbitral Awards (Right to contract out

    retained in all majority awards reviewed)

    A Decisions involving particular interpretations

    1. tay-off";

    2. "shortage of work".


    B Decision rendered upon notion of "contrat d'entreprise"

    1of/for services) {one case).

  • C Straight application of'reserved rights'theory

    (includins study of union minority views).

    D Conclusion

    1. Summary of awards;

    2. Possible effect of new section 10 A upon

    future arbitral decisions;

    3. An express prohibition likely to continue

    to be required to prelude Management from

    contracting out.

    General Conclusions

    A Summary of trend