Building A Habit of Attendance: Every Day Counts Denver, July 1, 2012
2 Unpacking Attendance Terms Average Daily Attendance Definition: The % of enrolled students who attend school each day Answers: What resources are needed given the number of students who typically show up to school? Truancy Definition: Typically refers only to unexcused absences and is defined by each state and sometimes by school district. Answers: How many/which students are skipping school and breaking compulsory attendance laws? Chronic Absence Definition: Missing 10% or more of school for any reason excuse, unexcused, etc. Answers: How many and which students are missing so much school they are academically at risk? Do we need to improve attendance in order to raise achievement?
3 Moving into Action Requires Knowing If Chronic Absence is a Problem Most Schools Only Track Average Daily Attendance and Truancy. Both Can Mask Chronic Absence. 98% ADA = little chronic absence, 95%ADA = dont know; 93% ADA = significant chronic absence
4 Chronic Absence Versus Truancy (San Francisco Unified School District)
5 Nationwide, as many as 7.5 million students miss nearly a month of school every year. Thats 135 million days of lost time in the classroom. In some cities, as many as one in four students are missing that much school. Chronic absenteeism is a red alert that students are headed for academic trouble and eventually for dropping out of high school. Poor attendance isnt just a problem in high school. It can start as early as kindergarten. Chronic Absence A Hidden National Crisis
6 Students Chronically Absent in Kindergarten & 1 st Grade Much Less Likely to Read Proficiently in 3 rd Grade No riskMissed less than 5% of school in K & 1 st t Small riskMissed 5-9% of days in both K & 1 st Moderate risk 5-9% of days absent in 1 year &10 % in 1 year High riskMissed 10% or more in K & 1 st Source: Applied Survey Research & Attendance Works (April 2011) Percent Students Scoring Proficient or Advanced on 3 rd Grade ELA Based on Attendance in Kindergarten and 1 st Grade Attendance
7 For children chronically absent in preK & K, the Baltimore Education Research Consortium found: Greater likelihood of continued poor attendance. 50% chronically absent again in G1, 45% in G2. Lower outcomes in G1, G2 in reading and math, and math in G3 More often retained (26% compared with 9% of students with no chronic absence) More likely to be identified as needing special education Chronic Absence in PreK + K = Significantly Worse Outcomes By contrast, children who participated in Head Start had better attendance and higher 3 rd grade test scores.
8 The Chronic Early Absence Is Most Troubling for Poor Children Source: ECLS-K data analyzed by National Center for Children in Poverty (NCCP) Note: Average academic performance reflects results of direct cognitive assessments conducted for ECLS-K. 5 th Grade Math and Reading Performance By K Attendance Chronic K Absence predicted lower 5 th grade performance even if attendance had improved in 3 rd grade.
9 Chronic Absence is Especially Challenging for Low-Income Children Poor children are 4 X more likely to be chronically absent in K than their highest income peers. Children in poverty are more likely to face systemic barriers to school: Unstable Housing Poor Transportation Inadequate Food and Clothing, Lack of Safe Paths to School Due to Neighborhood Violence Chaotic Schools with Poor Quality Programs, etc.
10 Schools + Communities CAN Make a Difference Characteristics of Successful Attendance Initiatives Partner with community agencies to help parents carry out their responsibility to get children to school. Make attendance a priority, set targets and monitor progress over time. Examine factors contributing to chronic absence, especially from parent and student perspectives. Clearly communicate expectations to parents. Begin early, ideally in Pre-K. Combine universal strategies that create an engaged learning environment & build a culture of attendance with targeted interventions. Offer positive supports before punitive action.
11 Solutions Only Work If Grounded in Understanding Of What Leads to Chronic Absence Discretion Parents dont know attendance matters School lacks a strong culture of attendance Aversion Child is struggling academically Child is being bullied Barriers Lack of access to health care No safe path to school Poor transportation Special thanks to Dr. Robert Balfanz, Everyone Graduates Center, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD for providing this framework.
12 Recognize Good and Improved Attendance Parent Engagement Personalized Early Outreach Attendance Data Team Proposed Universal Strategies For Influencing Discretion and Identifying Causes of Absence
13 Recovery Programs Case management and wrap-around services Referral as last resort for court -based intervention Recovery Programs Strategies for 3 Tiered Approach Early outreach, support, mentoring for student with poor attendance. Identify and remove barriers Attendance contracts Safe & supportive school environment Engaging classroom environments Parent education about why attendance matters and how to help each other get students to school. On-going attention to attendance data Recognition for good and improved attendance Collaboration with afterschool & early childhood School-based health supports Intervention Programs Universal/Preventive Programs
14 For Making The Case: 10 Steps Communities Can Take To Reduce Chronic Absence A Summary Of Key Research For Taking Action Guidance on School Wide Attendance Incentives Parent Flyer (also available in Spanish) Attendance Data Team Tips K-5 SATT/DATT Does Attendance Really Count - Self-Assessment (Note: Materials will also available by July 2 nd on www.attendanceworks.org on the Campaign for Grade Level Reading page under tools and t.a.) www.attendanceworks.org Resource Materials
15 Panel Discussion Baltimore, MD; Chula Vista, CA; Springfield MA Briefly describe your community and what you know about how much and for whom chronic absence is a problem? What are your key strategies for improving attendance? How are you engaging community partners? What are examples of how philanthropy has helped to advance your work?
B ALTIMORE C ITY P UBLIC S CHOOLS Baltimore: Making Every Day Count 16 Presented by: Arezo Rahmani Baltimore City Public Schools Sue Fothergill Baltimore Student Attendance Campaign With generous support from Open Society Institute: Baltimore and The Annie E. Casey Foundation Data provided by: Baltimore Education Research Consortium, a partnership between Baltimore City Public Schools, Morgan State University and Johns Hopkins University
B ALTIMORE C ITY P UBLIC S CHOOLS 17
B ALTIMORE C ITY P UBLIC S CHOOLS 18 Early Elementary Performance and Attendance in Baltimore City Schools Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten, Baltimore Education Research Consortium, March 2012
B ALTIMORE C ITY P UBLIC S CHOOLS 19 Early Elementary Performance and Attendance in Baltimore City Schools Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten, Baltimore Education Research Consortium, March 2012
B ALTIMORE C ITY P UBLIC S CHOOLS 20 Early Elementary Performance and Attendance in Baltimore City Schools Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten, Baltimore Education Research Consortium, March 2012 Based on a sample of 903 students, chronic absence in kindergarten is a strong predictor of chronic absence through 3 rd grade. 637 students (71%) went on to be chronically absent at least one more year, with almost 200 students being chronically absent through 3rd grade. 633 students (71%) went on to be chronically absent at least one more year, with almost 200 students being chronically absent through 3rd grade.
B ALTIMORE C ITY P UBLIC S CHOOLS 21 Students with chronic absence in pre-k and kindergarten consistently perform lower than students with good attendance. Early Elementary Performance and Attendance in Baltimore City Schools Pre-Kindergarten and Kindergarten, Baltimore Education Research Consortium, March 2012
B ALTIMORE C ITY P UBLIC S CHOOLS What does this all mean for Baltimore City early learners? In elementary grades, students in pre-k have the highest chronic absence, with rates improving through 3 rd grade Lack of formal care prior to kindergarten is an indicator for chronic absence in later years Chronic absence in pre-k and kindergarten means a student is twice as likely to be chronically absent in 1 st grade 22
B ALTIMORE C ITY P UBLIC S CHOOLS So whats Baltimore City doing? Focusing on data: Monitoring and identifying struggling schools Identifying neighborhoods struggling with attendance Raising awareness: Advocates and non-profits are elevating the issue of every day attendance, starting in pre-k, through Baltimore Attendance Collaborative and The Baltimore Campaign for Grade Level Reading Baltimore City Public Schools launched every day counts campaign 23
B ALTIMORE C ITY P UBLIC S CHOOLS So whats Baltimore City doing? Early learning teacher trainings: Partnership between City Schools, non-profits and local foundations Citywide partnerships: Baltimore Citys Mayor Stephanie Rawlings Blake Baltimore City Departments of Social Services and Health; The Family League Faith-based & community-based organizations Citywide collaboration: Improve on-time enrollment for pre-k and kindergarten Direct outreach to rising kindergarteners entering from home care Back to school, Baltimore! The Citywide back to school campaign 24
Chula Vista Elementary School District Denver, Colorado July 1, 2012 Campaign for Grade Level Reading Conference
Chula Vista Elementary School District Characteristics 45 Elementary Schools: Site-Based Model 28,000 Students 9,800 English Learners 6 Charter Schools 24 Title I Schools 3.91% Administrative Cost 45% Free/Reduced Lunch Program
Chula Vista Elementary School District Demographics
Chula Vista Elementary School District Performance
Focus on Chronic Absence Administrators vision to share data (2000) Quarterly Report to Principals Child-specific data Tool for site staff: Inquiry Communication Intervention
Focus on Chronic Absence 2010-11 Chronic Absence 26 schools improved their rate (58% of District) 35 schools at 3% or less (78% of District)
Focus on Chronic Absence Site-Level Strategies Culture of learning environment Expectations communicated often Parent notification Contracts for transfer students School events (Curriculum night, Kinder orientation) Incentives/Acknowledgement
Focus on Chronic Absence District-Level Strategies Home Visitor School Attendance Review Board (SARB) Currently for unexcused absences Intervention Advocate for student Legal process if families unresponsive Model SARB Recognition by CA Dept. of Ed.
Community Involvement Donation of incentive items Bicycles Baseball/Football tickets All-American City Award/Community Solutions Action Plan includes: Kindergarten orientation presentations Big Brothers/Big Sisters as mentors Local businesses and agencies Incentives for improved attendance Parent involvement/awareness
Chula Vista Elementary School District Lisa Butler Student Placement Manager (619) 425-9600 x1571 email@example.com
The Campaign for Grade Level Reading Whats Working: Promising Approaches to Improving Attendance Springfield, Massachusetts July 1, 2012 Springfield Public Schools - A Culture of Excellence
Springfield Framework: The essential pieces to raising student achievement Springfield Public Schools - A Culture of Excellence Effective instruction in every class, every day Shared, high expectations for all students Students achieve grade level proficiency Students graduate ready for college and career Coach, develop and evaluate educators based on a clear vision of strong instruction SIF #1,2,3,4 Implement a consistent, rigorous curriculum built on common standards with common unit assessments SIF #1,3,4,7 Deploy data that is timely, accurate and accessible to make decisions for students, schools and the district SIF #5,7 Strengthen social, emotional and academic safety nets and supports for all students SIF #6 The work
The District of Springfield: Demographics Springfield Public Schools - A Culture of Excellence African American20.7% Asian 2.4% Hispanic59.7% Native American 0.1% White13.8% Multiracial 3.2% Support Services 85.5% of all students receive free/reduced meals Graduation Rate 2010 District53.0% Massachusetts82.1% Dropout Rate District10.5% Massachusetts 2.9% Limited English Proficiency 16% of students are identified as Limited English Proficient (LEP) Students represent nearly 50 native languages 24.9% of students do not speak English as a first language Special Education Students......5,006 20%
Attendance Improvement Initiative: Initial Results Springfield Public Schools - A Culture of Excellence ** 2012 Data is YTD through March of 2012
Chronic Attendance Improvement Initiative: Initial Results Springfield Public Schools - A Culture of Excellence
Populations of Greatest Concern Springfield Public Schools - A Culture of Excellence The highest % and largest number of chronically absent are Latino students. African Americans are a high percent but fewer in number. Chronic Absence Higher Among Students in Special Education and On Free & Reduced Price Lunch
Attendance Improvement Initiative/Springfield Attendance Policy Springfield Public Schools - A Culture of Excellence *Interventions may reflect multiple occurrences to a family/student. *Failure to Send is a new option approved by School Committee in March, 2012 ElementaryMiddleHighSAFETotal Calls*67,18544,93140,16611,088163,370 Letters*5,4724,28710,52359520,877 Letters of Concern3,567 Letters of Warning9,210 Letters of Critical Status8,100 Visits7181,157...