Buddhist Logic Vol 1,Stcherbatsky,1930,1994,300dpi

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BUDDHIST LOGICVOL, I

T H . STCHERBATSKY

MOTILAL BANARSIDASS PUBLISHERS PRIVATE LIMITED DELHI

First Indian Edition: Delhi, 1993 Reprint: Delhi, 1994 MOTILAL BANARSIDASS PUBLISHERS PRIVATE UMITED All Rights Reserved ISBN: 81-208-1020-1 (Vol. I) ISBN: 81-208-1019-8 (Set)

Also available at:MOTIIAL BANARSIDASS

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PRINTED IN INDIA BY JAINENDRA PRAKASH JAIN AT SHRI JAINENDRA PRESS, A-45 NARAINA, PHASE I, NEW DELHI 110 028 AND PUBLISHED BY NARENDRA PRAKASH JAIN FOR MOTILAL BANARSIDASS PUBLISHERS PRIVATE LIMITED BUNGALOW ROAD, DELHI 110 007

TO THE DEAR MEMORYOF

MY BELOVED MOTHER

TABLE OF CONTENTSPage

Abbreviations Preface Introduction 1. Buddhist Logic what 2. The place of Logic in the history of Buddhism 3. First period of Buddhist philosophy 4. Second .

X XI 1581 3 37

5. Third . 6. The place of Buddhist Logic in the history of Indian philosophy 1) The Materialists 2) Jainiam 3) The Sankhya System 4) The Yoga System 5) The Vedanta 6) The MimamsS 7) The Nyaya-Vaisesika System 7. Buddhist Logic before DignSga 8. The life of DignSga 9. The Dharmakirti 10. The works of Dharmakirti . 11. The order of the chapters in Pramana-vartika 12. The philological school of commentators 13. T h e C a s h m e r e or philosophic school of c o m m e n t a t o r s . . . 14. The third or religious school of commentators 15. Post-Buddhist Logic and the struggle between Realism and Nominalism in India 16. Buddhist Logic in China and Japan . 17. Tibet and Mongolia

11 15 15 16 17 20 21 22 24 27 31 34 37 88 39 4 0 42 47 52 55

Part I.Reality and Knowledge (pramanya-vada) . . 5978 i. Scope and aim of Buddhist Logic 2. A source of knowledge what . 3. Cognition and Recognition 4. The test of truth 5. Realistic and Buddhistic view of experience 6. Two realities 7. The double character of a source of knowledge 8. The limits of cognition. Dogmatism and Criticism 59 62 64 65 67 69 71 74

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VI P a r t IL T h e S e n s i b l e W o r l d Chapter I. The theory of Instantaneous Being (ksanika-vada). 1. The problem stated 2. Reality is kinetic 3. Argument from ideality of Time and Space 4. Duration and extention are not real 5. Argument from direct perception 6. Recognition does not prove duration 7. Argument from an analysis of the notion of existence . . . 8. Argument from an analysis of the notion of non-existence . 9. Santiraksita's formula 10. Change and annihilation . . . . 11. Motion is discontinuous 12. Annihilation certain a priori 13. Momentariness deduced from the law of Contradiction . . . 14. Is the point-instant a reality? The Differential Calculus . . 15. History of the doctrine of Momentariness 16. Some European Parallels Chapter II. Causation (pratltya-samutplda) 1. Causation as functional dependence 2 The formulas of causation 3. Causation and Reality identical 4. Two kinds of Causality 5. Plurality of causes 6, Infinity of causes 7. Causality and Free Will 8. The four meanings of Dependent Origination 9. Some European Parallels Chapter III. Sense-perception (pratyaksam). 1. The definition of sense-perception 2. The experiment of Dharmakirti 3. Perception and illusion 4. The varieties of intuition a) Mental sensation (manasa-praktyaksa) b) The intelligible intuition of the Saint (yogi-pratyaksa) . . . c) Introspection (svasamvedana) 5. History of the Iudian vies on sense-perception 6. Some European Parallels Chapter IV. Ultimate reality (paramartha-sat). 1. What is ultimately real 2. The Particular is the ultimate reality 3. Reality is unutterable 4. Reality produces a vivid image . . . 5. Ultimate Reality is dynamic 6. The Monad and the Atom 7. Reality is Affirmation 181 183 185 186 189 190 192 Page 79118 79 81 84 86 87 88 89 91 95 96 98 102 103 106 108 114 119 121 124 126 127 129 131 134 141 146 150 153 161 161 162 168 169 175

8. Objections 9. The evolution of the views on Reality 10. Some European Parallels P a r t III.The constructed worldChapter I. Judgment. 1. Transition from pure Bensation to conception 2. The first steps of the Understanding 3. A judgment what . . . . 4. Judgment and the synthesis in concepts 5. Judgment and namegiving 6. Categories 7. Judgment viewed as analysis 8. Judgment as objectively valid 9. History of the theory of judgment 10. Some European Parallels

VII Page 193 195 198 204362204 209 211 213 214 216 219 220 223 226 231 233 236 238 239 242 245 24% 250 252 254 256 260 262 264 269 275 279 281 283 287 290 295 296 297 298 301 301 303

Chapter II. Inference 1. Judgment and Inference 2. The three terms 3. The various definitions of inference . 4. Inferring and Inference . 5. How far Inference is true knowledge , . . 6. The three Aspects of the Reason 7. Dhamakirti's tract on relations 8. Two lines of dependence 9. Analytic and Synthetic judgments 10. The final table of Categories 11. Are the items of the table mutually exclusive 12. Is the Buddhist table of relations exhaustive 13. Universal and Necessary Judgments 14. The limits of the use of pure Understanding 15. Historical sketch of the views of Inference . . . . . . . . 16. Some European Parallels Chapter III. Syllogism (pararthanumanam). 1. Definition # 2. The members of syllogism . 3. Syllogism and Induction . 4. The figures of Syllogism 5. The value of Syllogism . . . 6. Historical sketch of Syllogism viewed as inference for others . 7. European and Buddhist Syllogism a) Definition by Aristotle and by the Buddhists b) Aristotle's Syllogism from Example c) Inference and Induction * . . d) The Buddhist syllogism contains two propositions e) Contraposition f) Figures

VIII g) The Causal and Hypothetical Syllogism h) Summary Chapter IV. Logical Fallacies. 1. Classification . . . 2. Fallacy against Reality (asiddha-hetv-abhasa) 3. Fallacy of a Contrary Reason 4. Fallacy of an Uncertain Reason 5. The Antinomical Fallacy 6. Dharmakirti's additions 7. History a) Manuals of Dialectics b) The refutative syllogism of the Madhyamikas c) The Vaisesjka system influenced by the Buddhists d) The Nyaya system.influenced by Dignaga 8. European Parallels Page 309 315 320 327 330 3B2 336 337 340 340 343 345 849 353

Part IV. Negation . . .Chapter 1. The negative judgment. 1. The essence of Negation 2. Negation is an Inference 3. The figures of the Negative Syllogism. The figure of Simple Negation 4. The ten remaining figures 5. Importance of Negation 6. Contradiction and Causality only in the Empirical Sphere . . 7. Negation of supersensuous objects 8. Indian developments 9. European Parallels: a) Sigwart's theory b) Denied copula and Negative Predicate . . . c) Judgment and Re-judgment Chapter II. The Law of Contradiction. 1. The origin of Contradiction 2. Logical Contradiction 3. Dynamical opposition . . 4. Law of Otherness 5. Different formulations of the Laws of Contradiction and Otherness 6. Other Indian schools on Contradiction 7. Some European Parallels a) The Law of Excluded Middle b) The Law of Double Negation c) The Law of Identity d) Two European Logics e) Heracleitus f) Causation and Identity in the fragments of Heracleitus - . . g) The Eleatic Law of Contradiction

363505363 366 370 375 381 383 384 387 390 394 397 400 402 404 409 410 413 415 416 417 419 424 425 428 430

IX h) Plato i) Kant and Sigwart j) The Aristotelian formula of Contradiction and Dharmakirti*s theory of Relations Chapter III. Universals. 1. The static Universality of Things replaced by similarity of action 2. History of the problem of Universals S 3. Some European Parallels Chapter IV. Dialectic. 1. Dignaga's Theory of Names 2. Jinendrabuddhi on the Theory of the Negative Meaning of Names . . * a) All names are negative h) The origin of Universals c c) Controversy with the Realist d) The experience of individuals becomes the agreed experience of the Human Mind e) Conclusion . 3. Santiraksita and Kamalasila on the negative meaning of words 4. Historical sketch of the devolopment of the Buddhist Dialectical Method . 5. European Parallels. a) Kant and Hegel b) J. S. Mill and A. Bain c) Sigwart d) Affirmation what e) Ulrici and Lotze Page 432 436 439

444 448 451 457 461 461 464 467 470 470 471 477 482 486 489 495 501

P a r t V . R e a l i t y o ft h e E x t e r n a l W o r l d . . . . . . .

.506545506 508 509 510 512 513 518 521 524 529 536 545 547 558 559

1. What is Real 2. What is External . 3. The three worlds . 4. Critical Realism 5. Ultimate Monism 6. Idealism 7. DignHga's tract on the Unreality of the External World . . 8. Dharrnakirti's tract on the Repudiation of Solipsism . . . . 9. History of the problem of the Reality of the External World , 10. Some European Parallels 11. Indo-European Symposion on the Reality of the External World

Conclusion Indices Appendix . . . . Addenda et corrigenda

ABBREVIATIONSAnekSntaj. AK. AKB. BB. BI. CC. CPR. ERE. GGN. IHQ. JBORS. JRAS. Khand. Mallavadi. Madhy, v. Nirvana. NB. NBT. NBTT (or Tipp. simply) NBh. NK. NKandali. NMukha. NV. NVTT (also Tatp). NS Parisuddhi Pr. vart. Pr vinisc. Pr. 8amucc. SD. SDS. Tipp, Tatp. VS. Anekanta-jaya-pataka of Haribhadra (Jain), Abhidharmakosa. Abhidharmakosabhasya. Bibliotheca Buddhica. Bibliotheca Indica. The Central Conception of Buddhism and the Meaning of the term Dharma (London 1923, R. A. S.). Critique of Fure Reason by Kant, transl. by Max Miiller. Encyclopedia of Religion and Ethics. Gottinger Gelehrte Nachrichten. Indian Historical Quarterly (Calcutta). Journal of the Bihar and Orissa Research Society. Journal of the Royal Asiatic So