Buddhism Anthony Doud, Hanson Yu, Henry Leung Slide 2 Buddhist Practices Monks performing daily routines Buddhist prayer Dalai Lama and student Buddhist monk meditating Slide 3 Buddhism in India The Buddha, Siddhartha Gautama Statue representation of the Buddha Dalai Lama teaching in India Statue of Indian Buddhism Slide 4 Buddhism in Tibet Tibetan monastery Religious tradition in Tibet King Langdarma, remembered for attempting to replace Buddhism with Bon religion Young Buddhist monks in Tibet Slide 5 Buddhism in Southeast Asia Pagoda from Laos in Southeast Asia Buddhism poster informing about Malay Buddhism Art of Theravada Buddhism in Southeast Asia Buddhist statue in Indonesia Slide 6 Buddhism in East Asia Buddhist pagoda tower in Japan Daruma, father of Zen Buddhism in China Buddhist statue in China Nichiren, important Buddhist sage in Japan Slide 7 Regional Impact- East Asia Political- Buddhism was rejected by Emperor Whuzong in 485 CE. Buddhist monks were seen as tax-evaders and were not held in high regard during the Tang Dynasty of China. The monks were ranked lower than commoners because Whuzong thought the religion as alien. Thus, they had no political power in China. Intellectual Innovations The Chinese had to constantly translate Buddhist texts from India. Eventually became more proficient at converting Sanskrit to Chinese and developed translation centers. Buddhism in East Asia brought about philosophical teachings and encouraged the acquisition of knowledge through preachings of discipline, patience, and non-violence. Religion- Both Korean and Japanese Buddhism saw rise of schools that had different branches of Buddhism. Buddhism became a top religion in the Far East and became commonly practiced. Buddhism was practiced in accordance to Confucianism because they shared common beliefs, however faced a great deal of opposition in China due to its origins. Arts & Architecture The Tang Dynasty created the Leshan Stone Buddha, the largest stone Buddha in the world, being inspired by Buddhism. Buddhism brought rise to the pagoda from India, a tall multi-story religious monument in East Asia with similar functions as those back in India. These pagodas were built in the 3rd Century BC. Technology- Buddhism promoted the development of printing technologies, as Buddhist texts were often in high demand. Korea was able to develop an alternate method of printing, called move-able type print, due to the high demand and low number of woodblocks. Buddhism furthered Koreas printing innovations and eventually allowed them to print their own books and manuals in the 10th Century. Economy- Buddhist texts were demanded from India, thus materials from China such as silk were traded for the texts. Social- Women were given some form of equality through Buddhism, as they were allowed to become monks and equals to men. Slide 8 Regional Impact-India Political- King Ashoka was an advocate of Buddhism and took it as his own faith. Thus, Buddhism impacted India politically because it influenced the Kings decisions. King Ashoka sent ambassadors across the world to spread Buddhism, using ambassadors to start religious movements. Intellectual Innovation Buddhism helped develop the earliest form of psychology in India, through vigorous study of the mind. Buddhism also contributed to the spread of philosophies in India. Religion- Buddhism originated in India during the 563 to 483 BCE era. It dominated and spread, eventually becoming the main religion. Impacted Indias religion through heavy influence on other religions in the 13th Century. Hinduism was influenced through their adopted practices, like meditation. Buddhism contributed a standard layout for Viharas, or temples. Arts & Architecture- In the 3rd Century B.C., Buddhist Viharas were rock-cut, meaning cave excavated. This demonstrated a high level of prowess from Buddhist inspiration because extreme care was taken to avoid collapse of the caves. Giant statues of past Buddhas were also prominent, showing Buddhism influenced Indian Art. Technology- Sanskrit was used to write Buddhist Literature in India. Economy- Indias economy was buffered in the 9th century when China needed more Buddhist texts and began to trade for them. Social- The caste system in India was weakened by Buddhism because it promoted equality in society, especially between men and women. Slide 9 Regional Impact- Tibet Political- Dalai Lama is the leader of Tibet, also a reincarnate of high priest. The upper class consists of a Buddhist council, that helps govern Tibet. The upper class consists of a Buddhist council, that helps govern Tibet. Intellectual Innovation- Tibetan Buddhism used debate and meditation to enhance and acquire knowledge. Also practiced were understandings of reality. Tenet System was used to teach philosophies. Was also the college the Four Schools of Tibet because it taught the most complex philosophies. Religion- Buddhism replaced the ancient religion of Bon in 550 CE, and forever influenced the Tibetan religion because the country became infused. Arts & Architecture Tibetan Art is sacred due to Buddhist influence. Statues of Buddhist deities are constructed to counteract negative emotions, showing a strong influence of Buddhism. Tibetan Architecture is also strongly influenced by Buddhism, shown by the Buddhist Wheels that line every building. Technology- Tibetans use Buddhist influenced prayer wheels called Mani. These Mani are giant wheels often inscribed with spiritual blessings and prayers. They are spun clockwise, in accordance to the sun and so that the blessings may be read. Economy- Tibets economy is build partly on tourism; tourists come to see the Buddhist temples as an attraction. Social- Upper class consisted of a council which ruled with the Dalai Lama. Lower class mainly consisted of followers of Buddhism. Slide 10 Regional Impact- Southeast Asia Political- The Kings in many of the regions were deemed protectors of the Buddhist religion. In Thailand, a government group called a sangha maintains order within the Buddhist temples. Intellectual Innovation Sri Lankan influence of Buddhism in Thailand changed the language in which the texts were written in. Religion- The main form of Buddhism in Southeast Asia is Theravadin. Theravadin Buddhism is fairly prevalent in the region, as 95% of the population follows this Buddhism. Arts & Architecutre Thailand is known for its Buddhist temples, or Stupas. These were usually tall and golden, and dominated Thai architecture. Technology- Buddhism did not influence Southeast Asian technology. Economy- Buddhist texts were frequently exported as part of Southeast Asias economy. Social- In Vietnam, Buddhism intermingled with society as it was very similar to Taoism, Vietnamese Religion, and Chinese spirituality. Thai Society has a sangha, a government run ministry that watches over Buddhist temples and monks. Slide 11 Chronology 566-486 BCE- Life of Siddhartha Guatama, the historical Buddha. 566-486 BCE- Life of Siddhartha Guatama, the historical Buddha. 486 BCE- The first Buddhist Council assembles at Rajagaha. Here, the Buddhist Canon, a sacred Buddhist text, is established. 486 BCE- The first Buddhist Council assembles at Rajagaha. Here, the Buddhist Canon, a sacred Buddhist text, is established. 350 BCE- The second Buddhist Council assembles at Versali. 350 BCE- The second Buddhist Council assembles at Versali. 272-231 BCE- The reign of Indian emperor Asoka who establishes the Buddhas Dharma on a national level for the first time. 272-231 BCE- The reign of Indian emperor Asoka who establishes the Buddhas Dharma on a national level for the first time. 250 BCE- Third Buddhist Council assembles, which results in the Great Schism (the Mahasanghika school parts ways with the Theravadins) 250 BCE- Third Buddhist Council assembles, which results in the Great Schism (the Mahasanghika school parts ways with the Theravadins) 247 BCE- Mahinda, Asokas son, introduces Buddhism to Sri Lanka. 247 BCE- Mahinda, Asokas son, introduces Buddhism to Sri Lanka. 100 BCE- Theravada Buddhist Canon is completed in Sri Lanka. 100 BCE- Theravada Buddhist Canon is completed in Sri Lanka. 300 CE- Expansion of Buddhism to Burma, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and Indonesia. 300 CE- Expansion of Buddhism to Burma, Cambodia, Laos, Vietnam, and Indonesia. 300 CE- Yogacara (meditation) school is founded. 300 CE- Yogacara (meditation) school is founded. 300-400 CE- Asanga and his brother Vasubandhu spread and teach the Yogacara school of Buddhism. 300-400 CE- Asanga and his brother Vasubandhu spread and teach the Yogacara school of Buddhism. 350-650 CE- The Gupta Dynasty controls India; Buddhist art and philosophy flourish. 350-650 CE- The Gupta Dynasty controls India; Buddhist art and philosophy flourish. 372 CE- Buddhism enters Korea. 372 CE- Buddhism enters Korea. 520 CE- Budhidharma, the founder of Zen, arrives in China. 520 CE- Budhidharma, the founder of Zen, arrives in China. 526 CE- Viniaya school of Buddhism is established in Korea. 526 CE- Viniaya school of Buddhism is established in Korea. 527 CE- Korea officially accepts Buddhism. 527 CE- Korea officially accepts Buddhism. Slide 12 Chronolgy Cont. 538 CE- Buddhism enters Japan. 538 CE- Buddhism enters Japan. 589-617 CE- Sui Dynasty rules in China, and so begins the Golden Age of Chinese Buddhism. 589-617 CE- Sui Dynasty rules in China, and so begins the Golden Age of Chinese Buddhism. 650 CE- Buddhism is established in Tibet. 650 CE- Buddhism is established in Tibet. 792-794 CE- The Great Samye Debate decides that Mahayana Buddhism should be practiced in Tibet. 792-794 CE- The Great Samye Debate decides that Mahayana Buddhism should be practiced in Tibet. 836 CE- King Langdharma persecutes Buddhists of Tibet. 836 CE- King Langdharma persecutes Buddhists of Tibet. 845 CE- Emperor of China suppresses Buddhism. 845 CE- Emperor of China suppresses Buddhism.