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Breakthrough Patterning Hardmask Enables Copper ... ... Breakthrough Patterning Hardmask Enables Copper Interconnect Scaling R 139 G 141 B 142 R 224 G 225 B 221 R 69 G 153 B 195 R

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  • External Use

    Applied Endura ® Cirrus™ PVD

    Breakthrough Patterning Hardmask

    Enables Copper Interconnect Scaling

  • R 139

    G 141

    B 142

    R 224

    G 225

    B 221

    R 69

    G 153

    B 195

    R 254

    G 203

    B 0

    R 255

    G 121

    B 1

    R 205

    G 32

    B 44

    R 163

    G 219

    B 232

    R 122

    G 184

    B 0

    R 77

    G 79

    B 83

    R 6

    G 30

    B 60

    External Use

    MOBILITY DRIVING AGGRESSIVE

    SYSTEM on CHIP (SoC)

    Multi-component SoCs designed

    to meet both functionality and

    form factor

    SCALING THROUGH HIGHER DENSITY

    INTERCONNECTS

  • External Use

    Interconnects in Advanced Chips are Narrow and Dense

    102 mm2 die size

    >1 Billion transistors

    >10 Layers of stacked wiring

    COPPER INTERCONNECTS

    connect elements on a chip

    SoC

    >20 KM COPPER WIRING

  • External Use

    Interconnects Fabricated In-Situ on the Wafer

    Patterning plays a key role in defining the interconnects

    Selective removal to create wiring

    pathways

    Patterning

    Copper wiring

    Metallization

    Exposure of a pattern (stencil)

    Lithography

  • External Use

    Patterning Challenges Limiting Interconnect Scaling

    Complexity

    Copper

    Source: Tada, M.; Inoue, N.; Hayashi, Y.; "Performance Modeling of

    Low-k /Cu Interconnects for 32-nm-Node and Beyond

    Alignment

    Perfect via alignment is critical for device yield

    Via Landing

    Cu Lines

    Via Bottom

    Via

    Cu Line

    Scaling

    Via

    1/2000th Human Hair

  • External Use

    Metal Hardmask Layer Manages Alignment Errors

    Larger vias overlaid onto the hardmask

    Dielectric

    Layer

    Hardmask ensures the perfect via alignment critical for yield

    Protected

    Etched

    Via Diameter

    Meets Spec.

    Hardmask layer masks un-intended overlays

    Via Overlay Hardmask

  • External Use

    Titanium Nitride is the Metal Hardmask of Choice

    Titanium nitride (TiN) is one of

    the hardest known materials

    Titanium

    Nitride Copper Metal

    Harder Softer Hardness

    Robust TiN hardmask film is essential for pattern fidelity

    Diamond TiN Hardmask

    Prevalent since the 90nm node

  • External Use

    Physical Vapor Deposition Technology for TiN Hardmask

    PVD is the leading technology

    for metal deposition in chip

    manufacturing

    ► Titanium atoms reactively

    sputtered in nitrogen-based

    plasma

    ► Tunable composition

  • External Use

    Applied is the Leader in PVD TiN Systems

    2007 2009 2011 2013

    >200 PVD TiN systems

    Standard PVD 2nd Gen. Ionized PVD Ionized PVD

  • External Use

    High Film Density is Key for Hardness

    High film density desired to prevent excessive erosion

    * Inverse of hardmask etch rate during dielectric etch

    H a rd

    e r

    to E

    tc h

    * 

    TiN Film Density (g/cm^3)

    Excessive Hardmask

    Erosion

    Hardmask

    Resistant to Etch

    Via CD In-Spec

    High-Density

    Hardmask

    Via CD Out-of-Spec

    Low-Density

    Hardmask

    CD = critical dimension

  • External Use

    Conventional PVD TiN has High Compressive Stress

    Neutral-to-tensile stress needed for pattern fidelity

    Neutral Stress +ve (Tension) -ve (Compression)

  • External Use

    Breakthrough Needed to Extend TiN Hardmask

    Compressive

    Low High

    Neutral Stress

    Film Density (Hardness)

    Ideal Hardmask for

    10 nm and Beyond

    Alternative Technologies

    CVD/ALD

    Low-density films Tensile

    Conventional PVD TiN

    Possible to densify but stress penalty

    Need Breakthrough

    PVD = Physical Vapor Deposition

    CVD = Chemical Vapor Deposition

    ALD = Atomic Layer Deposition

  • External Use

    Introducing Endura® CirrusTM HTX TiN Breakthrough in PVD TiN Hardmask

     First PVD TiN system capable of tensile TiN

    films with high density

     VHF PVD-based technology for high

    ionization

     Tool of record at multiple customer sites

    VHF = Very High Frequency

    PVD = Physical Vapor Deposition

    TiN = Titanium Nitride

  • External Use

    Enhanced PVD Technology for TiN Films

    Conventional PVD

    ► Higher plasma density

    ► Ion energy control

    ► Surface atom mobility

    enhancement

    Conventional PVD Cirrus TM HTX TiN

    PVD = Physical Vapor Deposition

    TiN = Titanium Nitride

  • External Use

    Precision Control Over TiN Film Growth

    Cirrus chamber designed for tensile, high-density TiN films

    Nucleation (0 – 50Å)

    Dense Nucleation with a mixture

    of (111) and (200) orientation

    Film Growth

    Conventional TiN

    Neutral-Dominant

    Plasma

    (50 – 150Å) (>200 Å)

    Columnar microstructure dominated by (111) orientation

    Highly Ionized

    Plasma

    CirrusTM HTX TiN

    Smooth, dense microstructure dominated by (200) orientation

    TiN = Titanium Nitride

    Scan here to view animations

  • External Use

    First PVD for Tensile, High-Density TiN Films

    CirrusTM HTX TiN

    Compressive

    Low High

    Neutral Stress

    Film Density (Hardness)

    Alternative Technologies

    CVD/ALD

    Low-density films Tensile

    Conventional PVD

    Possible to densify but stress penalty

    PVD = Physical Vapor Deposition

    CVD = Chemical Vapor Deposition

    ALD = Atomic Layer Deposition

    TiN = Titanium Nitride

  • External Use

    Proven Performance for Dense, Narrow Patterns

    CirrusTM HTX TiN

    No Line Bending

    Conventional TiN

    Pattern Distortion No Line Bending

    Higher Pattern Density (Dense Pattern)

    Good pattern fidelity demonstrated on 10nm features Applied Materials Internal Data

    TiN = Titanium Nitride

  • External Use

    Proven Performance for Dense, Narrow Patterns Applied Endura® Cirrus™ HTX TiN System Breakthrough in Interconnect Patterning for Advanced Devices

    Precision engineered hardmask addresses patterning

    challenges for advanced interconnects

    Tunable film stress for TiN thin films with

    close-to-bulk density

    Rapid traction with >80 chambers shipped since 2013

    Maintains Applied’s leadership in metal hardmask

    technology

    External Use

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