Booklet Adobe Photoshop Cs6

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    Whas in he Bag? 1

    Choosing Your ools . . . . . . . . . . . 2

    Exposure 7

    Undersanding Exposure Mah . . . . . 8

    Variables o Exposure . . . . . . . . . . . 10

    Meering Mehods . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15

    Conrolling Exposure: Blending

    Aperure and Shuter Speed . . . . . . . 16

    Exposure Compensaion . . . . . . . . .22

    ips & ricks 24

    Adding Film Grain . . . . . . . . . . . . .25

    Correcing Lens Errors . . . . . . . . . .27

    Sof Edges or Vecor Masks . . . . . . .30

    Ediing Selecions . . . . . . . . . . . . .32

    Creaing Image Effecs wihGradien Maps . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .34

    Saving and Exporing Images 36

    Major Graphic File Formas . . . . . . . 37

    Raser vs. Vecor . . . . . . . . . . . . . .38

    Preparing and Saving Images

    or he Web . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .40

    ADOBE PHOOSHOP CS6: LEARN BY VIDEO

    Supplemen Conens

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    by Tim Grey

    Whats in the Bag?

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    One o he mos exciing and challenging

    aspecs o phoography is ha i enables you o

    employ such a wide variey o ools o creae

    he final image. Tese include he cameras,

    lenses, and accessories ha are used o capure

    he iniial image, as well as compuers and sof-

    ware ools ha help you manage and opimizehe image afer he capure.

    O course, a phoographic image sars wih an

    idea and a phoographic capure, so i makes

    sense o hink abou your equipmen beore

    you se ou o capure images. Ta includes

    boh wha equipmen you will use and how you

    will prepare ha equipmen.

    Each phoographer has a paricular se o ools

    a heir disposal or any given phoo shoo.

    While you migh consider purchasing or rening

    Choosing Your ools

    When you capure a phoographic image, i migh seem like here are a virually

    unlimied number o decisions o make. Wha lens will you use? Wha exposure

    setings? Where will you posiion he camera? How will you rame he subjec?

    Te lis goes on and on.

    addiional iems beore a phoographic oppor-

    uniy, ulimaely youre going o need o

    decide which pieces o equipmen youll bring

    wih you.

    Camera Bodies

    When i comes o he camera body, he deci-

    sion ends o be relaively sraighorward. Mos

    phoographers use one or wo camera bodies,

    and in mos cases you will end o bring all o

    he camera bodies you own. Afer all, i can

    be very helpul o have a backup camera wih

    you should anyhing go wrong. I is also useul

    in cerain siuaions o have wo bodies, wiha differen lens on each, so you can quickly

    swich cameras when you wan a differen lens,

    raher han needing o swich lenses on a single

    camera body.

    2 WHAS IN HE BAG?

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    ADOBE PHOOSHOP CS6: LEARN BY VIDEO

    I you have more camera bodies han youd like

    o bring along on a given rip, and hose bodiesare differen models, youll wan o hink abou

    he capabiliies o each camera body relaive o

    he subjecs you expec o phoograph. Some o

    he hings youll wan o hink abou are resolu-

    ion, ocusing speed, and weigh.

    Sensor and image resoluion in digial phoo-

    graphy are generally expressed in megapixels;

    each megapixel equals one million pixels.

    Higher resoluions allow larger phoo prins ,because he number o pixels in any given area

    is larger, meaning he raser is smaller. Only he

    physical pixels o he camera sensor are

    relevan o he qualiy o he prined image;

    resoluions blown up arificially by digial

    zooming or inerpolaion are meaningless.

    LensesI you have a relaively small number o lenses

    you migh consider bringing all o hem. Bu

    in some siuaions you will need o make a

    decision abou which paricular lenses o bring

    along. Here i is criically imporan ha you

    hink abou he subjecs you migh phoograph

    realizing ha someimes i can be difficul o

    anicipae wha opporuniies may arise.

    Focal lengh is he obvious consideraion ha

    probably eners your mind firs. How close will

    you be geting o your subjecs? I you will be

    ar away, do you need a long elephoo lens o

    do he subjec jusice? How wide will be wide

    enough i youll be capuring subjecs up close

    bu sill wan o include surrounding conex?Will prime lenses be adequae, or do you need

    he flexibiliy o a zoom lens?

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    4 WHAS IN HE BAG?

    My general approach o lens choice is o firs

    jus pack my sandard walkabou lens , which

    ends o be atached o my camera mos o he

    ime on ypical phoography ouings. For me

    ha is a 24-105mm lens atached o my Canon

    EOS 7D, bu your equipmen and preerences

    may vary. Nex I hink abou how much reach I

    migh need and wha ocal lengh would be

    adequae or ha purpose. Will a lens in he

    range o abou 200mm maximum ocal lengh

    do he rick, or do I need 400mm or beyond?

    Wihin he range o possibiliies or longer lens-

    es, i is imporan o hink abou overall weigh(i here are packing limiaions or i you migh

    be shooing handheld), as well as he wides

    possible aperure (i ocusing perormance or

    deph o field are chie consideraions).

    I hen conemplae he need or a wide-angle

    lens. I don capure wih especially wide-angle

    lenses all ha ofen, bu when I do I really enjoy

    he experience. So i he subjec mater migh

    lend isel o a wide perspecive, I ll hink abou

    a lens wih a shor ocal lengh.

    Accessories

    Once you have your camera and lens choices

    made, youll wan o hink abou addiional

    accessories. I realize ha many phoographers

    would reuse o admi hey ever capure images

    wihou a ripod, bu i you end no o use aripod and need o ravel ligh, perhaps you

    should jus leave he ripod a home. Wihou a

    ripod you won be able o easily capure com-

    posie panoramas, high dynamic range (HDR)

    images, ime-lapse images, or long exposures.

    And o course low-ligh phoography can be

    a challenge wihou a sable plaorm. So give

    careul hough o wheher or no you need o

    bring along a ripod. And i you are bringing aripod, be sure you have appropriae plaes on

    your cameras and longer lenses.

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    Depending on he ype o phoography you

    end o do, you may wan o hink abou acces-

    sories such as flash unis, oher lighing, and

    filers. I realize ha wih he adven o digial

    ools many phoographers don eel he need

    or filers anymore, bu hey can sill prove

    remendously useul. I nohing else, you migh

    consider a solid neural densiy filer o enable

    long exposures.

    Cerain accessoriesi hopeully goes wihou

    sayingshould always be in your ki or even

    he shores phoo ouing. Tese include, a a

    minimum, spare bateries and digial media

    cards. For longer rips youll also wan o

    include batery chargers, a digial media card

    reader, and perhaps a lapop or oher device or

    downloading your phoos, including an exernalhard drive i necessary.

    Tere are many oher possibiliies you migh

    consider. For example, i you requenly capure

    composie panoramic images, you migh wan

    o bring along a bubble level ha fis in he ho

    shoe moun on your camera (unless your

    camera has a buil-in level eaure). I you plan

    o capure longer exposures or ime-lapse

    images, you may wan o bring a cable release.

    I you like o assign GPS coordinaes o your

    images, you may wan o bring along a GPS

    racking device. And o course, based on your

    pas experience, expecaions or your phoo-

    graphy ouing, and available equipmen, you

    migh wan o consider oher ools o bring

    along.

    Te poin is o hink abou wha subjecs you

    migh phoograph and wha equipmen you

    need. I can even be helpul o develop check-

    liss or differen ypes o phoography, o helpmake sure you remember everyhing you need

    Tis can be especially helpul or hose iems

    ha you end no o use all ha ofen and her

    ore migh orge o bring wih you.

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    Exposure

    by im Gre

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    8 EXPOSURE

    Admitedly, mos o his mah happens behind

    he scenes, and heres no a remendous need

    o undersand he pariculars. For example, is

    here really a significan benefi o ully compre-

    hending how pixel values are being adjused as

    you increase he sauraion o a phoo? Cerain-ly he more you undersand whas going on,

    he beter equipped youll be o make he mos

    o your digial phoos, bu heres no quesion

    ha some o he mah you could undersand

    wouldn provide much benefi oher han he

    comor o acually knowing.

    Tere is one calculaion, however, ha affecshe qualiy o every phoograph you ake:

    exposure.

    Undersanding Exposure Mah

    Mos phoographers aren exacly big ans o mah. Quie ofen heir eyes sar o

    glaze over as soon as he subjec is raised. And ye, phoography in many respecs

    is all abou mah. From calculaions relaed o ocal lengh and deph o field, o

    exposure, o adjusmens applied using sofware ools afer he capure, here is a

    remendous amoun o mah going on.

    Te Value of Exposure Mah

    Considering ha he momen o exposure ruly

    defines he amoun and qualiy o inormaion

    conained wihin he phoographic image, i

    sands o reason ha exposure is criical. While

    odays digial cameras do a remarkable jobo calculaing proper exposure under a wide

    variey o lighing condiions, he phoographer

    mus ge direcly involved in evaluaing, and

    when necessary overruling, hose calculaions

    in order o produce he very bes image.

    Te Sop

    Te mah relaed o calculaing exposure

    revolves around he noion o he sop, which

    is ofen misundersood. We alk abou sops

    o ligh, and ye a sop isn exacly a uni o

    measure ha defines a specific quaniy o ligh.

    o be sure, a sop is used o measure ligh, bu

    no in a direc sense.

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    I is mos cerainly possible o measure ligh

    in erms o quaniy, which would largely be

    a mater o measuring he amoun o energy

    being emited by a par icular ligh source. For

    example, he lumen is a measure o he quaniyo ligh, and i has a fixed value.

    A sop, however, doesn have a fixed value in

    erms o quaniy o ligh; i is a relaive value.

    When we say were adding a sop o ligh, wha

    were acually saying is ha were doubling

    he amoun o ligh. wo sops would be our

    imes as much ligh, because weve doubled

    he amoun o ligh wice. Subracing one sop

    means were cuting he amoun o ligh in hal.

    So, here is obviously some mah involved

    when i comes o sops, bu ha mah is relaiv

    o a reerence poin. Ta reerence poin can

    generally be hough o as a proper exposure o

    he curren lighing condiions, bu he sop as uni o measure is relaive o a given reerence

    value, no a measure o a specific quaniy.

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    10 EXPOSURE

    And o course, once all ha work is compleed,

    here is sill much more work or he camera,

    including measuring sensor values or each

    pixel, applying noise reducion i applicable,

    calculaing he values ha will be sored in he

    resuling file, wriing ha file o a digial media

    card, and a variey o oher asks.

    A he mos basic level, wih a camera se o

    ully auomaic mode, he phoographer simply

    poins he camera a a subjec and presses he

    shuter release, leting he camera do he res

    o he work. However, he phoographer can

    always choose o ge more involved, and o

    influence he final phoographic image in he

    process. Fundamenal o his noion is he ac

    ha a phoographer doesn adjus exposure

    by simply urning a dial up or down o affec

    overall brighness, bu raher by adjusing

    several individual conrols. Tose conrols

    are he aperure, he shuter speed, and he

    ISO seting.

    Variables of Exposure

    A digial camera is incredibly busy when capuring an image. Consider all he work

    ha has o be done or a ypical exposure. Te key subjec in he rame mus be

    idenified and he disance o ha subjec mus be deermined. Te exposure mus

    be calculaed based on he ambien ligh, he curren meering mode, and oher

    camera setings. Te mirror mus be moved up ou o he way o he image sensor,

    he aperure mus be closed down o he seting esablished wih he curren camera

    setings, and he shuter mus be opened or he proper duraion.

    Te Aperure

    A phoographic exposure is creaed by projec-

    ing ligh ono an image sensor (or film, or hose

    phoographers sill inclined o capure on film).

    Ta ligh passes hrough an aperure, which

    you can hink o as a gae or a hole; a series o

    blades allow you o adjus he size o ha hole.

    Te size o he aperure is measured as a raio

    relaive o he lenss ocal lengh. Te ocal

    lengh o he lens is divided by he diameer ohe curren aperure opening, and he resul

    provides he -number ha is used o describe

    he aperure seting. Tis relaionship is a com-

    mon source o conusion among phoographers,

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    because as he aperure becomes smaller, he

    number used o describe i grows larger.

    Te reason or his apparen dispariy is acually

    quie simple when you consider he mah. For

    example, i we assume a ocal lengh o 100mm

    and an aperure diameer o 4.5mm, he aperu-re value would be abou /22 (100/4.5 = 22.2).

    A larger aperure ha measures 18mm in dia-

    meer would yield an aperure value o /5.6

    (100/18 = 5.55).

    Tis relaionship beween lens ocal lengh and

    aperure diameer is he reason he aperure

    value is generally writen as a racion, such as

    /2.8 or /8. Tink o he as lens ocal lengh

    and he relaionship becomes quie clear, as

    long as youre able o hink a bi in erms o he

    mah involved.

    When you adjus he aperure or he lens,

    you are adjusing he amoun o ligh ha will

    be projeced or he final exposure. While he

    aperure numbers available o you migh seem

    somewha arbirary, hey are in ac based

    on he concep o he sop, which also helpsexplain why aperure setings are reerred o

    as /sops.

    Te /number or a given aperure seting

    relaes o he ocal lengh o he lens and he

    acual diameer o he aperure opening. Te

    differen aperure setings available relae o a

    doubling or halving o he amoun o ligh bein

    projeced. Les assume /8 as our saring poin

    I we waned o double he amoun o ligh, we

    would need o open he aperure even urher,

    specifically o an aperure o /5.6. I, on he

    oher hand, we waned o cu he amoun o

    ligh in hal, we would need o close he aper-

    ure somewha, o a seting o /11.

    Te move rom /8 o /5.6 is a change o one

    sop o ligh, because an aperure o /5.6 will

    allow wice as much ligh o pass hrough he

    lens compared o /8. Te move rom /8 o /1

    will allow hal as much ligh, and so ha oo is

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    12 EXPOSURE

    change o one sop o ligh. When reducing he

    amoun o ligh (moving o a larger /number)

    we say ha we are sopping down he lens.

    When increasing he amoun o ligh we end o

    say we are opening up he lens aperure.

    Shuter Speed

    An image is capured by recording he ligh ha

    passes hrough he aperure and srikes he

    image sensor. In order o conrol he amoun

    o ligh acually recorded, and hus ensure a

    proper exposure, he exposure mus be imed.

    Tis is he job o he shuter mechanism, and

    he amoun o ime or which he shuter allows

    he ligh o srike he image sensor is he shuter

    speed. Tis is a simple measure o he duraion

    o ime expressed in seconds. For example, a

    as shuter speed migh be around 1/500h o

    a second, while a slow shuter speed migh be

    several seconds.

    Tere is a direchough inverserelaionshipbeween aperure and shuter speed. Te larger

    he aperure opening, he less ime he shuter

    mus remain open o ensure a proper exposure.

    Te smaller he aperure opening, he longer

    he shuter mus remain open.

    Measuring he shuter speed and undersanding

    ha measuremen are o course simpler han

    he conceps behind he aperure. However,

    like he aperure seting, shuter speeds are

    measured based on sops o ligh. We adjus

    shuter speeds in incremens ha relae o

    doubling or halving he amoun o ligh being

    recorded.

    For example, les assume a base shuter speed

    o 1/60h o a second, wih he assumpion ha

    a he curren aperure seting his will yield

    a proper exposure. I we wan o double heamoun o ligh we need o leave he shuter

    open wice as long. So insead o 1/60h o a

    second, we could use 1/30h o a second. Tis

    is double he duraion, and hus double he

    amoun o ligh, and ha means he resul is

    one sop more ligh, or a one-sop brigher

    exposure.

    By conras, i we waned o reduce he amoun

    o ligh, we would need o leave he shuteropen or a shorer duraion. So o reduce he

    amoun o ligh by hal, or one sop, we would

    open he shuter or hal as much ime. In he

    case o a 1/60h-second exposure, ha means

    using a shuter speed o 1/120h o a second.

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    (Mos cameras, or reasons o expediency

    relaed o oher shuter speed values, use

    1/125h o a second or his value.)

    Te ISO Seting

    Te aperure and shuter speed need o be

    adjused in concer wih each oher o produce

    a proper exposure. Bu wha abou siuaions

    where you can achieve a good combina-

    ion based on your phoographic needs? For

    example, i you wan o sop he lens down o

    increase deph o field (he range o deail ha

    is in ocus in he rame), bu he available ligh

    won le you use a as enough shuter speed

    o render a sharp image while you are hand-

    holding he camera, wha are you o do?

    Te answer is o adjus he ISO seting. A com-

    mon misconcepion is ha by increasing he

    ISO seting or your camera you are increasing

    he sensiiviy o he image sensor. Tis acuall

    isn he case. Based on is physical properies,

    an image sensor has a given sensiiviy o ligh

    you can change ha. Bu you can apply am-

    plificaion o he signal recorded by he image

    sensor, which produces a resul ha is similar

    an increased sensiiviy.

    Because increasing he ISO seting acually

    applies amplificaion, however, here is also

    a side effec ha can be quie problemaic a

    imes: noise. When you ampliy he signal,

    you aren somehow magically increasing heamoun o inormaion in he scene. In ac, by

    using a higher ISO seting youre acually inen

    ionally underexposing he image (capuring

    less ligh han you would or a proper exposure

    and hen applying amplificaion o he signal in

    order o brighen up he scene. Youre effecive

    ly rying o fill in inormaion where inormaio

    wasn capured. Te resul is random variaion

    in onal and color values or he pixels, which iwha we reer o as noise in he image.

    O course, in cerain cases youll need o make

    a compromise, risking noise in order o achiev

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    14 EXPOSURE

    an adequaely as shuter speed based on

    he aperure you eel is necessary o produce

    adequae deph o field. When you do adjus

    he ISO seting, youre also making adjusmens

    based on sops o ligh.

    Te base ISO seting or mos digial camerasis 100. Wih film here were lower ISO values

    available (and some digial cameras do offer

    ISO setings below 100), bu a 100 ISO value

    has become somehing o a baseline sandard

    or digial exposure. Tis is he seting you use

    when you wan o capure an image based

    on he naural sensiiviy o ligh o he image

    sensor.

    I you wan o apply amplificaion in order

    o achieve a aser shuter speed (creaing he

    illusion o recording more ligh, effecively),

    you can increase he ISO seting o 200. Obvi-

    ously he number 200 is double 100, and in

    his case ha is no coincidence. A change rom

    100 ISO o 200 ISO applies amplificaion ha is

    equivalen o one sop o ligh. In oher words,increasing rom a seting o 100 ISO o 200 ISO

    is producing a resul ha will look (wih he

    excepion o he addiional noise) as hough you

    had recorded wice as much ligh.

    Going rom 200 o 400 ISO is anoher doubling

    o he exposure. And, o course, reducing ISO

    rom 200 o 100 produces a resul ha looks as

    hough you had capured hal as much ligh.

    When you adjus he ISO seting on your digial

    camera, he idea is generally no so much odouble (or halve) he amoun o ligh, bu raher

    o achieve a aser shuter speed. Bu has

    exacly when he noion o s ops relaed o ISO

    setings becomes so valuable. I you increase

    he ISO by one sop (or example, rom 100 ISO

    o 200 ISO), you can hen increase he shuter

    speed by one sop (or example, rom 1/30h

    o a second o 1/60h o a second). In siuaions

    where a aser shuter speed is criical (such aswhen you wan o reeze moion or o capure

    handheld in a low-lighing siuaion), increas-

    ing he ISO is a relaively easy way o make he

    mos o he curren limiaions.

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    Marix/Muli-Zone Meering

    With matrix- or multi-zone metering, you can

    achieve really precise results. In this metering

    method, the camera calculates an average

    exposure value for several small measure-

    ment fields distributed over the picture area

    (their number and shape can vary depending

    on your camera). As a rule of thumb, the

    more measurement fields there are , the

    more exact the global result will be.

    Some advanced metering systems also

    compare the measurement results from

    the individual fields with a built-in image

    database to improve the exposure.

    Cener-Weighed Average Meering

    This method gives the center of the image

    more weight in the calculationagain, the

    exact algorithm will vary depending on the

    camera model. On average, the center part

    of the image will determine 60-80% of the

    final metering result. In some situations,

    especially for portrait shots or if your

    main subject is in the dead center of yourframe, center-weighted metering can be

    the method of choice.

    Meering Mehods

    Te meering mehod ha your camera uses deermines how i calculaes exposure

    Mos cameras offer several meering mehods ha you can choose rom depending

    on he shooing siuaion; he mos common are marix or muli-zone meering,

    cener-weighed average meering, and spo meering.

    Spo Meering

    Te spo meering mehod is he mos selec-

    ive o all meering mehods, and i can yield

    very precise resuls i used properly, especially

    or images eauring mainly he midone range

    Spo meering measures only abou 15% o h

    image area. Some cameras use a fixed mea-suremen area in he image cener, while oher

    cameras use he acive ocus poin or measure

    men. Te advanage o spo meering is ha

    he measuremen won be influenced by brigh

    or dark areas ouside o he small measuremen

    field, allowing you o ge very precise exposure

    values or a cerain image area.

    :A gray card can be very helpul or spo

    meering. Place he card in your image rame

    and poin he measuremen spo a i. As soon

    as you have your reading, you can use he

    exposure values deermined by he camera or

    you can modiy hem by adjusing shuter spee

    and -sop values. Tis way, you will obain a

    very precisely exposed phoo o your subjec.