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Bluray Disc Notes

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Blu-ray Disc From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (Redirected from Blue ray disc) Jump to: navigation, search Blu-ray Disc

Media type Encoding Capacity

High-density optical disc MPEG-2, H.264/MPEG-4 AVC, and VC-1 25 GB (single layer) 50 GB (dual layer) 405 nm laser: 1 at 36 Mbit/s 2 at 72 Mbit/s 4 at 144 Mbit/s 6 at 216 Mbit/s[1] 12 at 432 Mbit/s

Read mechanism

Developed by

Blu-ray Disc Association Data storage,


High-definition video High-definition audio and PlayStation 3 games

Blu-ray Disc (also known as Blu-ray or BD) is an optical disc storage media format. Its main uses are high-definition video and data storage. The disc has the same dimensions as a standard DVD or CD.

The name Blu-ray Disc is derived from the blue laser (violet coloured) used to read and write this type of disc. Because of its shorter wavelength (405 nm), substantially more data can be stored on a Blu-ray Disc than on the DVD format, which uses a red (650 nm) laser. A dual layer Blu-ray Disc can store 50 GB, almost six times the capacity of a dual layer DVD. Blu-ray Disc was developed by the Blu-ray Disc Association, a group of companies representing consumer electronics, computer hardware, and motion picture production. As of July 2, 2008 more than 650[2] Blu-ray Disc films have been commercially released in the United States and more than 410[3] Blu-ray Disc titles have been released in Japan. During the high definition optical disc format war, Blu-ray Disc competed with the HD DVD format. On February 19, 2008, Toshiba the main company supporting HD DVD announced it would no longer develop, manufacture and market HD DVD players and recorders,[4] leading almost all other HD DVD supporters to follow suit, effectively ending the format war. Contents [hide] 1 History o 1.1 Origins o 1.2 Blu-ray Disc format finalized o 1.3 Launch and sales developments o 1.4 Competition from HD DVD o 1.5 End of the format war 2 Technical specifications o 2.1 Laser and optics o 2.2 Hard-coating technology o 2.3 Recording speed 3 Software standards o 3.1 Codecs o 3.2 Java software support o 3.3 Region codes o 3.4 Digital rights management (DRM) 4 Player profiles 5 Backward compatibility 6 Ongoing development 7 Variants o 7.1 Mini Blu-ray Disc o 7.2 BD9/BD5 Blu-ray Disc o 7.3 AVCREC o 7.4 Blu-ray Disc recordable 8 See also o 8.1 Alternative disc technologies 9 References 10 External links

[edit] History Optical disc authoring

vde Optical disc Optical disc image Optical disc drive Optical disc authoring Authoring software Recording technologies o Recording modes Packet writing Optical media types Laserdisc (LD), Video Single Disc (VSD) Compact Disc (CD): Red Book, 5.1 Music Disc, SACD, PhotoCD, CD-R, CD-ROM, CD-RW, CD Video (CDV), Video CD (VCD), SVCD, CD+G, CD-Text, CD-ROM XA, CD-i MiniDisc (MD) (Hi-MD) DVD: DVD-R, DVD+R, DVD-R DL, DVD+R DL, DVD-RW, DVD+RW, DVD-RW DL, DVD+RW DL, DVD-RAM, DVD-D Ultra Density Optical (UDO) Universal Media Disc (UMD) HD DVD: HD DVD-R, HD DVD-RW, HD DVD-RAM, HD DVD-ROM o Blu-ray Disc (BD): BD-R, BD-RE Standards Rainbow Books File systems o ISO 9660 Joliet Rock Ridge El Torito Apple ISO 9660 Extensions o Universal Disk Format (ISO 9660) (UDF) Mount Rainier Further reading History of optical storage media High definition optical disc format war

A blank rewritable Blu-ray Disc (BD-RE) In 1998, commercial HDTV sets began to appear in the consumer market; however, there was no commonly accepted, inexpensive way to record or play HD content. In fact, there was no medium with the storage required to accommodate HD codecs, except JVC's Digital VHS and Sony's HDCAM.[5] Nevertheless, it was well known that using lasers with shorter wavelengths would enable optical storage with higher density. When Shuji Nakamura invented practical blue laser diodes, it was a sensation, although a lengthy patent lawsuit delayed commercial introduction.[6] [edit] Origins Sony started two projects applying the new diodes: UDO (Ultra Density Optical) and DVR Blue (together with Pioneer), a format of rewritable discs which would eventually become Blu-ray Disc (more specifically, BD-RE).[7] The core technologies of the formats are essentially similar. The first DVR Blue prototypes were unveiled at the CEATEC exhibition in October 2000.[8] Because the Blu-ray Disc standard places the data recording layer close to the surface of the disc, early discs were susceptible to contamination and scratches and had to be enclosed in plastic cartridges for protection. In February 2002, the project was officially announced as Blu-ray,[9] and the Blu-ray Disc Association was founded by the nine initial members. The first consumer devices were in stores on April 10, 2003. This device was the Sony BDZ-S77; a BD-RE recorder that was made available only in Japan. The recommended price was US$3800;[10] however, there was no standard for pre-recorded video and no movies were released for this player. The Blu-ray Disc standard was still years away as a newer, more secure DRM system was needed before Hollywood studios would accept it, not wanting to repeat the failure of the Content Scramble System used on DVDs. [edit] Blu-ray Disc format finalized The Blu-ray Disc physical specifications were finished in 2004.[11] In January 2005, TDK announced that they had developed a hard coating polymer for Blu-ray Discs.[12] The cartridges, no longer necessary, were scrapped. The BD-ROM specifications were finalized in early 2006.[13] AACS LA, a consortium founded in 2004,[14] had been developing the DRM platform that could be used to securely distribute movies to consumers. However, the final AACS standard was delayed,[15] and then delayed again when an important member of the Blu-ray Disc group voiced concerns.[16] At the request of the initial hardware manufacturers, including Toshiba, Pioneer and Samsung, an interim standard was published which did not include some features, like managed copy.[17]

[edit] Launch and sales developments The first BD-ROM players were shipped in the middle of June 2006, though HD DVD players beat them in the race to the market by a few months.[18][19] The first Blu-ray Disc titles were released on June 20, 2006. The earliest releases used MPEG-2 video compression, the same method used on DVDs. The first releases using the newer VC-1 and AVC codecs were introduced in September 2006.[20] The first movies using dual layer discs (50 GB) were introduced in October 2006.[21] The first audio-only release was made in March 2008.[22] The first mass-market Blu-ray Disc rewritable drive for the PC was the BWU-100A, released by Sony on July 18, 2006. It recorded both single and dual layer BD-R as well as BD-RE discs and had a suggested retail price of US$699. [edit] Competition from HD DVD Main article: High definition optical disc format war The DVD Forum (which was chaired by Toshiba) was deeply split over whether to develop the more expensive blue laser technology or not. In March 2002, the forum voted to approve a proposal endorsed by Warner Bros. and other motion picture studios that involved compressing HD content onto dual-layer DVD-9 discs.[23][24] In spite of this decision, however, the DVD Forum's Steering Committee announced in April that it was pursuing its own blue-laser high-definition solution. In August, Toshiba and NEC announced their competing standard Advanced Optical Disc.[25] It was finally adopted by the DVD Forum and renamed HD DVD the next year,[26] after being voted down twice by Blu-ray Disc Association members, prompting the U.S. Department of Justice to make preliminary investigations into the situation.[27][28] HD DVD had a head start in the high definition video market and Blu-ray Disc sales were slow at first. The first Blu-ray Disc player was perceived as expensive and buggy, and there were few titles available.[29] This changed when PlayStation 3 launched, since every PS3 unit also functioned as a Blu-ray Disc player. At CES 2007 Warner proposed Total Hi Def which was a hybrid disc containing Blu-ray on one side and HD DVD on the other but it was never released. By January 2007, Blu-ray discs had outsold HD DVDs,[30] and during the first three quarters of 2007, BD outsold HD DVDs by about two to one. Finally, by February 2008, Toshiba announced it was pulling its support for the HD DVD format, leaving Blu Ray as the victor in the video wars.[31] Some analysts believe that Sony's PlayStation 3 video game console played an important role in the format war, believing it acted as a catalyst for Blu-ray Disc, as the PlayStation 3 used a Blu-ray Disc drive as its primary information storage medium.[32] They also credited Sony's more thorough and influential marketing campaign.[33] More recently several studios have cited Blu-ray Disc's adoption of the BD+ anti-copying system as the reason they supported Blu-ray Disc over HD DVD.[34] [edit] End of the format war In January 2008, a day before CES 2008, Warner Brothers, the only major studio still releasing movies in both HD DVD and Blu-ray Disc format, announced it would release only in Blu-ray Disc after May 2008. This effectively included other studios which came under the Warner umbrella, such as New Line Cinema and HBO, though in Europe HBO distribution partner the BBC announced it would, while keeping an eye on market forces, continue to release product on both formats. This led to a chain reaction in the industry, including major U.S. retailers such as Best Buy, Wal-Mart, and Circuit City dropping HD DVD in their stores. A major European retailer, Woolworths, dropped HD DVD from its inventory. Netflix and Blockbuster, major DVD rental companies, said they would no longer carry HD DVDs. Following these

new developments, on 19 February 2008, Toshiba announced it would be ending production of HD DVD devices,[35] allowing Blu-ray Disc to become the industry standard for

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