Blended Learning in English Language Teaching: Course Design ...

  • Published on
    11-Dec-2016

  • View
    214

  • Download
    0

Embed Size (px)

Transcript

  • Blended Learning in English Language Teaching: Course Design and ImplementationEdited by Brian Tomlinson and Claire Whittaker

  • Blended Learning in English Language Teaching: Course Design and ImplementationEdited by Brian Tomlinson and Claire Whittaker

  • Contents | 1

    ISBN 978-0-86355-706-4

    British Council 2013 Brand and Design/D05710 Spring GardensLondon SW1A 2BN, UK

    www.britishcouncil.org

  • Contents | 1

    ContentsForeword John Knagg obe ..............................................................................................................................................................3

    Acknowledgements ....................................................................................................................................................5

    Preface Claire Whittaker ..............................................................................................................................................................7

    Introduction Claire Whittaker ..............................................................................................................................................................9

    Part 1 English for Academic Purposes ............................................................................................25

    1 A collaborative online reading and research project Jody Gilbert ..........................................................................................................................................................27

    2 Blended learning in English for Academic Purposes courses: A Nigerian case study Peter A Aborisade .............................................................................................................................................35

    3 A blended English as a Foreign Language academic writing course Natalya Eydelman .............................................................................................................................................43

    4 Incorporating blended learning in an undergraduate English course in Colombia Juanita Pardo-Gonzalez .................................................................................................................................51

    Comments on Part 1 Brian Tomlinson ..................................................................................................................................................61

    Part 2: Teacher development .....................................................................................................................63

    5 A blended learning teacher development course for the development of blended learning in English Language Teaching Nik Peachey ..........................................................................................................................................................65

    6 Reversing the blend: From online to blended Gavin Dudeney and Nicky Hockly ...........................................................................................................75

    7 A case study of blended learning: The Communicative Assessment Development of Testing Skills project Keith OHare and Xu Bo .................................................................................................................................83

    8 Blended learning: The IDLTM experience Ron White, Andy Hockley, Stephen Heap and George Pickering ........................................91

    9 Creating a blended Delta Module One Sally Hirst and Tom Godfrey .................................................................................................................... 101

    10 The Cambridge CELTA course online Jacqueline Douglas and Colin Paton .................................................................................................. 111

    Comments on Part 2 Brian Tomlinson ...............................................................................................................................................125

  • 2 | Contents

    Part 3 English for Specific Purposes ..............................................................................................129

    11 Blended learning: Podcasts for taxi drivers Nergiz Kern ......................................................................................................................................................... 131

    12 A blended learning course for the aviation industry: A case study Lynda Beagle and Graeme Davies ...................................................................................................... 141

    13 Blended learning for English for Occupational Purposes: No frills, soft skills, gaps filled Andy Keedwell ..................................................................................................................................................147

    14 A longitudinal case study of the blends used on courses between the British Council in Bulgaria and Siemens Enterprise Communications Bulgaria Edward Russell .................................................................................................................................................155

    15 Using a wiki to enhance the learning experience on a business English course Louise Ingham ..................................................................................................................................................163

    16 A military blend Claire Whittaker ...............................................................................................................................................175

    Comments on Part 3 Brian Tomlinson ...............................................................................................................................................185

    Part 4 English as a Foreign Language/General English ................................................. 187

    17 A thinking-based blended learning course in an upper-secondary school in Latvia Alexander Sokol, Edgar Lasevich, Renata Jonina and Marija Dobrovolska-Stoian ........................................................................................................................189

    18 A blended learning approach to soft skill training at Al Azhar University, Cairo Liz Fleet ................................................................................................................................................................201

    19 Students CALLing: Blended language learning for students Hatice Bilgin .......................................................................................................................................................207

    20 Lessons in blended learning: Implementing an online learning platform in the adult education sector Astrid Krake ....................................................................................................................................................... 213

    Comments on Part 4 Brian Tomlinson ...............................................................................................................................................221

    Conclusion Claire Whittaker .......................................................................................................................................................223

    Appendix 1 Questions for blended learning course designers...........................................243

    Contributors ...........................................................................................................................................................245

  • Foreword | 3

    ForewordJohn Knagg obe

    In recent years it has become the norm for publishers to include technology-mediated elements alongside traditional printed materials in their publications. At institutional level teachers increasingly include technology-mediated learning in their courses. Yet there has been relatively little discussion and writing about the principles that should be applied in blending elements which use technology with more traditional face-to-face teaching in the same course. This volume is a contribution to such a discussion.

    While many of the principles will be applicable to wider educational contexts, this publication is rooted in the world of English Language Teaching (ELT). It is centred on the description of 20 real case studies from around the world in the areas of English for Academic Purposes (EAP), English for Specific Purposes (ESP), teacher education and general English as a Foreign Language teaching. These case studies are prefaced, interspersed, and followed by exploration of the concepts of blending and interpretation, and discussion of the application of the concepts in the case studies. We hope that this approach will make the book practically useful as a self-study guide to the area for educationalists, and also be a source of inspiration for students on teacher training and academic courses in the areas of education, language teaching, and applied linguistics.

    The genesis of this book was an original idea by Claire Whittaker to build on her practical and academic work in blended learning in ELT and to generate principles that would be of real practical help to course designers, which in turn would lead to more effective learning and satisfied students. Brian Tomlinson has edited the papers and added his own commentaries to make the final product a true collaboration between the two editors and the authors of the case studies. The British Council thanks them all, and hopes that you find the book both useful and enjoyable.

    John Knagg obe Head Research and Consultancy, English and Examinations, British Council

  • 4 | Foreword

  • AcknowledgementsWe would like to thank the British Council for inviting us to edit this volume and in particular Adrian Odell for being informative, patient and supportive throughout the process of its development. We would also like to thank Melissa Cudmore at the British Council for encouraging Claire to submit the proposal for this publication back in April 2011, and John Knagg who drove the process forward. Thanks also go to John for his advice and support along the way.

    We would like to express our gratitude to all the authors of chapters in this volume for their hard work, their willingness to consider constructive criticism and their speed in completing revisions.

    Brian Tomlinson and Claire Whittaker

    Acknowledgements | 5

  • 6 | Acknowledgements

  • PrefaceClaire Whittaker

    When I took up the post of Training and Systems Manager with the British Council in Bosnia and Herzegovina in 2003, little did I know that it would result in the proposal for this publication, or better still that the proposal would be accepted. The rest, as they say, is history. Prior to this post my experience of using computers in English Language Teaching (ELT) had been somewhat limited. I had first used them as a teacher in 1997 when I had access to a computer room with an internet connection and a limited number of CD-ROMs. I used them for extension activities to complement my face-to-face sessions by providing the students with additional controlled practice of the grammar or vocabulary that had just been presented.

    This experience piqued my interest in using computers for language teaching and learning and so I read articles and books on computer-assisted language learning (CALL) in an attempt to find practical suggestions for their successful integration and usage. I also attended courses on information and communications technology (ICT) in ELT, as it was then referred to, in my quest for knowledge. This interest and limited amount of experience and knowledge did not, however, adequately prepare me for my role as Training and Systems Manager in which I inherited a blended learning course that was being used to teach English to military personnel in the armed forces of Bosnia and Herzegovina. It was also the first time that I had heard the term blended learning and I have to say, initially, I was sceptical about its longevity; how wrong I was.

    One of my first tasks in the role was to carry out a study into delivery of the English language in the 13 geographically spread language centres, to become familiar with their working practices. This highlighted the numerous significant inconsistencies in the language delivery between them, for example the length of courses, the timetables and syllabi. I felt that we needed to standardise the language delivery, not only to be able to manage the system more effectively, but also to provide each student with comparable learning opportunities. At this stage I was unconcerned by the fact that these courses employed a blended learning approach rather than a traditional face-to-face approach. Nor did I realise what it entailed or appreciate its potential. My outlook was soon to change though, once I began to understand the complexities of designing, or in my case redesigning, a blended learning course.

    Only once the course content and length had been standardised did I begin to question the blend itself and to consider the design, not only at lesson level but also at course level, for the first time. Unwittingly this resulted in what was to become a three-year iterative redesign process. Throughout this time I continued to read articles and books on what was now largely being termed blended learning, but was frustrated by the lack of advice on the principles and practicalities of blended learning course design (above lesson level) and descriptions or studies of blends in ELT contexts.

    Preface | 7

  • To address this deficit I proposed this publication so that ELT practitioners could formally share descriptions of their blends from a range of ELT courses (English for Academic Purposes, English for Specific Purposes, teacher training, and general English) and contexts, which most likely had been designed in relative isolation. It is hoped that these blends can be replicated or adapted by other practitioners to suit their particular teaching and learning contexts. In addition, the guiding principles and practical considerations that shaped the blends will hopefully help practitioners achieve a principled approach to blended learning course design in their contexts.

    8 | Preface

  • IntroductionClaire Whittaker

  • Introduction | 1110 |

  • Introduction | 11

    IntroductionThis introductory chapter will provide an overview of blended learning by considering where the term originated and by seeking to define what it means in corporate training, higher education and English Language Teaching (ELT). It will also establish why these three sectors employ a blended learning approach, outline a number of the models they use for blending, and consider the ways in which blended learning is effective. It will conclude with a summary of why getting the blend right is important, whilst acknowledging that this is not an easy task and that further research on blended learning is required in ELT contexts.

    Blended learning a definitionThe term blended learning originated in the busines...

Recommended

View more >