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Biofuel Made from Hydrothermal Polymerization of Cellulosic Feedstock: Recycling · PDF file 2017. 6. 2. · Biofuel Made from Hydrothermal Polymerization of Cellulosic Feedstock:

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  • Biofuel Made from Hydrothermal Polymerization of Cellulosic Feedstock: Recycling and Harvesting

    Value-added Products Amin Ghaziaskar, M.A.Sc. Candidate

    Alexis Mackintosh, PCS Technologies Inc. Prof. Onita Basu, Department of Environmental Engineering Prof. Glenn McRae, Department of Mechanical Engineering

    Prof. Edward Lai, Department of Chemistry Carleton University

  • Global Push Towards Green Energy

    • Increased Energy Demand

    • Need to reduce fossil-fuel Green House Gases

    • Push towards carbon-neutral sources of energy, including these solid biofuels •Wood pellets • Torrefied wood pellets • Steam-explosion pellets

    2

  • What is PCS Biofuel?

    3

    Poly Carbon Solid

  • PCS Biofuel •Not torrefied •High energy content •Various cellulosic feedstock •Hydrophobic •Durable and non-friable pellets •Pellets readily pulverized for combustion •Low ash (

  • ● Coal fines are the ‘dust’ that 10% of mined coal becomes

    ● 30–50 million tons of coal fines dumped into water bodies annually

    ● Estimated 2.3 billion tons of coal fines have already been dumped

    PCS Biofuel as a Binder

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    http://www.therma-flite.com/Coal-Fines-Dryer-Article.php

  • PCS Biofuel as a Binder

    http://www.therma-flite.com/Coal-Fines-Dryer-Article.php

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  • 5% Biofuel 95% Coal Pellets

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  • Binder for Torrefied Wood

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    Torrefied wood + PCS biofuel Torrefied wood

  • Binder for Torrefied Wood

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    Torrefied woodTorrefied wood + PCS biofuel 53 Days

  • Benefits of The Biofuel

    ●Diverts and removes organic waste from landfills

    ●Carbon neutral (no carbon tax)

    ●Can be produced locally ●e.g., in abandoned pulp and paper

    plants

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  • 11

    Process Overview

  • SOLID BIOFUEL SEPARATION

    BIOMASS PCS

    BIOFUELREACTOR

    PCS BIOFUEL PELLETS

    PATENTED CATALYST (aq)

    VALUABLE CHEMICALS

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  • SOLID BIOFUEL SEPARATION

    BIOMASS PCS

    BIOFUELREACTOR

    PCS BIOFUEL PELLETS

    PATENTED CATALYST (aq)

    LIQUID RECOVERY

    VALUABLE CHEMICALS

    13

    +

  • Biofuel Production

    In October of 2015 several tons of biofuel were produced. Feedstock tested: • Wood waste, including

    bark • Organic solid waste • Food waste • Animal manure

    Test Reactor in Suncheon, South Korea

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  • SOLID BIOFUEL SEPARATIONREACTOR

    LIQUID RECOVERY

    VALUABLE CHEMICALS

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    +

    BIOMASS PCS

    BIOFUEL

    PCS BIOFUEL PELLETS

    PATENTED CATALYST (aq)

  • The Experiment

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  • The Experiment

    • 16 consecutive cooks reusing over 90% of the recovered liquid

    • Bomb calorimetry test

    •High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

    •Chemical oxygen demand (COD) test

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  • 18

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    42% 43% 44% 45% 46% 47% 48% 49% 50% 51%

    Fresh R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15

    M as

    s yi

    el d

    Recycle number

    Mass Yield vs Recycle Numbers

  • Calorimetry Test Results on the Biofuel

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    Fresh R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15

    En er

    g y

    co nt

    en t

    (M J/

    K g

    )

    Recycle number

    Energy Content Mean

  • HPLC Sample Chromatogram

    formic acid, 400-600 US$/ton

    acetic acid, 400-500 US$/ton

    levulinic acid, 1000-2000 US$/ton

    5-hydroxymethylfurfural(HMF) 2000-3000 US$/ton

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  • 22

    0

    1

    2

    3

    4

    5

    6

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    Fresh R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15

    C on

    ce nt

    ra tio

    n (g

    /L )

    Recycle number

    Concentration of Formic Acid in the Recycled Liquid

    Mean Formic acid

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    0

    5

    10

    15

    20

    25

    Fresh R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15

    C on

    ce nt

    ra tio

    n (g

    /L )

    Recycle number

    Concentration of Acetic Acid in the Recycled Liquid

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    0.0

    0.5

    1.0

    1.5

    2.0

    2.5

    3.0

    Fresh R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15

    C on

    ce nt

    ra tio

    n (g

    /L )

    Recycle number

    Concentration of HMF in the Recycled Liquid

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    0

    2

    4

    6

    8

    10

    12

    14

    16

    Fresh R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15

    C on

    ce nt

    ra tio

    n (g

    /L )

    Recycle number

    Concentration of Levulinic Acid in the Recycled Liquid

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    0

    10

    20

    30

    40

    50

    60

    Fresh R1 R2 R3 R4 R5 R6 R7 R8 R9 R10 R11 R12 R13 R14 R15

    C O

    D (g

    O 2/

    L)

    Recycle number

    Chemical Oxygen Demand

  • Conclusions Recycling the catalyst will result in: • Increasing mass yield

    •Constant energy content

    •Decreased formation rate of the byproduct chemicals

    •COD growth slows down

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  • Harvest or

    Recycle? 28

  • Implications •Recycle of the catalyst feasible •Lower cost of energy •Lower water use •Lower cost of catalyst •Energy density of biofuel stays the same

    ØSuggests use of continuous flow reactors

    29

  • References

    [1] J.M. Craven, J. Swithenbank, V.N. Sharifi, D. Peralta-Solorio, G. Kelsall, P. Sage, Hydrophobic coatings for moisture stable wood pellets, Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 80, September 2015, Pages 278-285, ISSN 0961-9534, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2015.06.004. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0961953415300180) Keywords: Wood pellets; Hydrophobic coatings; Water resistant; Biomass treatment [2] David A. Agar, A comparative economic analysis of torrefied pellet production based on state-of- the-art pellets, Biomass and Bioenergy, Volume 97, February 2017, Pages 155-161, ISSN 0961-9534, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biombioe.2016.12.019. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0961953416303920) Keywords: Torrefaction; Economics; Pellets; Torrefied pellets; Wood pellets; Biocoal [3] http://www.airex-energy.com/en/ [4] Pak Sui Lam, Pak Yiu Lam, Shahab Sokhansanj, C. Jim Lim, Xiaotao T. Bi, James D. Stephen, Amadeus Pribowo, Warren E. Mabee, Steam explosion of oil palm residues for the production of durable pellets, Applied Energy, Volume 141, 1 March 2015, Pages 160-166, ISSN 0306-2619, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.apenergy.2014.12.029. (http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306261914012860) Keywords: Empty fruit bunch; Palm kernel shell; Pellet; Density; Compression energy; Steam explosion [5] http://hypertextbook.com

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  • Biofuel Made from Hydrothermal Polymerization of Cellulosic Feedstock: Recycling and Harvesting

    Value-added Products Amin Ghaziaskar, M.A.Sc. Candidate

    Amin.ghaziaskar@carleton.ca Alexis Mackintosh, PCS Technologies Inc.

    Prof. Onita Basu, Department of Environmental Engineering Prof. Glenn McRae, Department of Mechanical Engineering

    Prof. Edward Lai, Department of Chemistry Carleton University

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