Ben Franklin 1706-1790 He was involved in a little bit of everything! He ran the Pennsylvania Gazette newspaper and wrote Poor Richard's Almanack for 26.

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    24-Dec-2015

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Ben Franklin 1706-1790 He was involved in a little bit of everything! He ran the Pennsylvania Gazette newspaper and wrote Poor Richard's Almanack for 26 years. His body of written work- humorous satires, aphorisms, political writings, scientific essays Franklin believed that human beings could achieve perfection through self discipline and a logical plan. "If you would not be forgotten As soon as you are dead and rotten, either write things worth reading, or do things worth the writing." - Franklin </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Phillis Wheatley 1753-1784 -the first African American Poet to be published -kidnapped at age 7 in West Africa, sold as a slave to the Wheatley family in Boston, learned to read and write -the Wheatley family encouraged her to write poetry as a teenager and she gained fame in both the colonies and in England -her poetry mainly focused on moral and religious subjects -By 1778 Wheatley had gained her freedom and married a free black man,but they still struggled against poverty as times were not easy for free African Americans in the colonies </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> John Locke - 1631-1704 -Born in England -Locke took a rather optimistic view of human nature and reckoned that people are born equal, with no built-in sense of right and wrong. We are the result of what we observe and experience as we go through life; no one is 'naturally' any better than anyone else. All our ideas are derived from experience, thus we are limited by our own experiences. -Social Contract Theory - the idea that people give up some rights to a government/authority in order to receive or preserve social order; legitimate state authority must derive from the consent of the governed -Believed no one should have absolute power and that there should be a separation of power </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Thomas Paine - 1737 - 1809 Interesting to note, Thomas Paine was a recent transplant to the Colonies when he gained a reputation as a revolutionary writer. He arrived in Philadelphia in 1774 from London. He wrote Common Sense in 1776 - 50 page pamphlet that urged colonists to form their own country Paine addressed the "comman man" - not the educated elite - used straightforward language Reinforced the idea that ALL men were capable of understanding and participating in government The Crisis - was a series of 16 pamphlets. The selection in our textbook was the first of the series The Age of Reason - last work, attacked organized religion and earned him no friends He spent his last years in poverty </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> The Crisis - 1776 - This pamphlet was read to George Washington's troops as they camped by the Delaware River December 19, 1776. The Continental Army had suffered devastating losses and many soldiers had given up and returned home. Washington commanded that this pamphlet be read to the troops to re-energize their dedication to the cause and to rouse them into action. It was successful. They crossed the Delaware to defeat the Hessians on Christmas night and General Cornwallis on January 2nd. </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Thomas Jefferson - 1743-1826 served as governor of Virginia, U.S. Minister to France, First Secretary of State, Vice-President, and President of the United States Most importantly, he expressed his ideals regarding liberty and self-government in the Declaration of Independence. Jefferson was not a strong public speaker like Patrick Henry, but rather one who possessed the power of expression through his writings. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> The Declaration of Independence relies upon a logical argument - it has a claim, support, and counterargument The Declaration of Independence has 4 main parts: Preamble (foreword) - announces the reason for the document Declaration - of people's natural rights and relationship to the government List - a long list of complaints against George III, the British king Conclusion - formally states America's independence from Britain Although Thomas Jefferson is often called the author of the Declaration of Independence, he wasnt the only person who contributed important ideas. Jefferson was a member of a five-person committee appointed by the Continental Congress to write the Declaration. The committee included Jefferson, Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Robert Livingston, and Roger Sherman. Philosopher John Lockes ideas were an important influence on the Declaration of Independence. Thomas Jefferson restated Lockes contract theory of government when he wrote in the Declaration that governments derived their just Powers from the consent of the people. </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Patrick Henry - 1736-1799 -he was known as the "Orator of Liberty" - he is known for his speeches supporting American democracy -After Britain passed the Stamp Act in 1765, Patrick Henry was part of the Virginia legislature that challenged the legality of the British tax on the colonies. Henry went so far as to challenge the king in a speech and stated "If this be treason, make the most of it." -Patrick Henry was a self-taught lawyer by trade as well as an influential leader in the Revolutionary movement. -He is best known for the "Speech in the Virginia Convention" -He also organized a militia in Virginia which became a part of the new Continental Army -Henry served several terms as governor of Virginia as well as in the state legislature </li> </ul>

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