Bell Metal

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<p>CLUSTER DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMME, INDIA</p> <p>DIAGNOSTIC STUDY ARTISAN THE BELL METAL CLUSTER KONDAGAON (CHHATTISGARH)</p> <p>BY</p> <p>BHUPESH TIWARI Cluster Development Agent</p> <p>DEVELOPED UNDER</p> <p>THE TRAINING PROGRAMME FOR THE CLUSTER DEVELOPMENT AGENTS, ORGANISED BY UNIDO CDP NEW DELHI&amp;</p> <p>THE ENTREPRENEURSHIP DEVELOPMENT INSTITUTE OF INDIA (EDII), AHMEDABADYEAR 2002</p> <p>The views expressed in the Diagnostic Studies are those of the authors and should not be attributed to UNIDO or to the institutions they may represent.</p> <p>KONDAGAON BELL METAL CLUSTER</p> <p>CONTENTSNO. 1 INTRODUCTION 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 2 The National Scenario Government Support About Bastar Handicrafts The Kondagaon Bell Metal Cluster 3 TOPIC PAGE 1</p> <p>THE HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVEI) II) III) IV) V)</p> <p>Upto 1960 - A Hidden Art 1960 To 1970- Receives Recognition At National Level 1970 To 1980- Honour Of Artisans 1980-1990- Received International Repute 1990-2000- A Time Of Diversification 5</p> <p>3</p> <p>THE PRODUCTION DETAILS 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.4 The Process Raw Material Requirement Of The Cluster The Work Environment The Cluster Map</p> <p>4</p> <p>SKETCH OF OTHER ENTERPRISES &amp; INSTITUTIONS IN THE CLUSTER 4.1 4.2 Local Institutions Need For An Effective Service Institution</p> <p>8</p> <p>KONDAGAON BELL METAL CLUSTER</p> <p>5</p> <p>ANALYSIS OF BUSINESS OPERATIONS Raw Material Products And Markets Main Issues Facing The Cluster</p> <p>9</p> <p>6</p> <p>SWOT ANALYSIS Strengths Weakness Opportunities Threats</p> <p>10</p> <p>7 8</p> <p>VISION FOR THE CLUSTER STRATEGIC DIRECTIONS INTERVENTIONS ANNEXURE &amp; ACTION PLAN FOR</p> <p>10 12</p> <p>9</p> <p>14</p> <p>KONDAGAON BELL METAL CLUSTER</p> <p>1. INTRODUCTION1.1 THE NATIONAL SCENARIOThe evidence of the Bell Metal craft have been discovered in the relics of Mohanjodaro and Harappa civilizations, which prove the historical and traditional importance of the industry. Even today it is practiced in several parts of the country like Orissa, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Bihar and U.P etc. These bell metal artisans are mostly tribal-people. The metal-crafts sector plays a vital role in providing employment to our rural population. In India there are about three million handicraft artisans and most of them are working in metal sector. These metal artisans display inherent creativity and play a significant role in protecting the traditional art and culture of our nation. The following graph shows the state-wise distribution of artisans in India. STATEWISE DISTRIBUTION OF CRAFTS PERSONS IN INDIA (Figures in 000)</p> <p>500</p> <p>400</p> <p>Cramaman</p> <p>300</p> <p>200</p> <p>100</p> <p>Meghalaya</p> <p>Rajasthan</p> <p>Assam</p> <p>Nagaland</p> <p>Orissa</p> <p>Gujrat</p> <p>Arunachal P</p> <p>0 Ap</p> <p>Tamilnadu</p> <p>Mah.</p> <p>Manipur</p> <p>HP</p> <p>Bihar</p> <p>Haryana</p> <p>Keral</p> <p>Punjab</p> <p>MP</p> <p>UP</p> <p>State</p> <p>Chandigarh</p> <p>Tripura</p> <p>Sikkim</p> <p>Karnataka</p> <p>A&amp;N</p> <p>J&amp;K</p> <p>WB</p> <p>1</p> <p>KONDAGAON BELL METAL CLUSTER</p> <p>1.2 GOVERNMENT SUPPORTThe Indian Government has been giving a lot of support and has designed various measures for the development of handicrafts industry. The following chart provides a brief insight into the various development actions taken by the Government during the different five-year plans for the benefit of this sector. HANDICRAFTS INDUSTRY AND THE FIVE YEAR PLANS First Plan Enhance opportunities of employment and income from crafts as an economic activity. Provision of support services for the development of various crafts Specific measures of development were adopted for identified crafts.</p> <p>Second Plan</p> <p>Third Plan</p> <p>Fourth Plan</p> <p>Propagated the service institutions rather than the producer cooperatives Thrust on increasing production and exports and to improve the earning &amp; working conditions of craftsmen.</p> <p>Fifth Plan</p> <p>Sixth Plan</p> <p>Training activities given a major impetus. Increased involvement of Voluntary Agencies Enhance opportunities of employment and income from crafts as an economic activity.</p> <p>Seventh Plan</p> <p>Eighth Plan</p> <p>Note: Please refer to Annexure 1 for details on each plan's outlay for Handicraft sector 2</p> <p>KONDAGAON BELL METAL CLUSTER</p> <p>1.3 ABOUT BASTAR HANDICRAFTSThe Bastar district of Chhattisgarh is a prime place in the state for its unique tribal culture and traditions apart from its abundant natural resources. It is located in the extreme southern part of Chhattisgarh adjacent to the states of Orissa, Maharashtra and Andhra Pradesh. The tribal King Pravir Chandra Bhanjadev, who ruled Bastar for decades contributed a great deal for promoting the art and culture of the place. The Bastar district is world-famous for its handicrafts. There are 20-25 thousand artisans in Bastar working in various areas like Terracotta, Iron craft, Bell metal, Wood carving, Bamboo weaving etc. These crafts have a great market potential in India as well as abroad. Many designers and specialists visit the region with a desire to establish themselves in these crafts but due to a lack of proper infrastructure and facilities they fail to stay on for long.</p> <p>1.4 THE KONDAGAON BELL METAL CLUSTERKondagaon, a village in Bastar as a Bell Metal Cluster is about 300 years old. It is popular for decorative items like idols of God-Goddesses, and other utility items. Wax and wood which are essentially needed for these Forest Based Metal Crafts, are naturally available in abundance in this area. Technical upgradation, Finances, Testing facilities, Branding, New design development, Proper packaging etc. are the main problems of this trade. Apart from the Kondagaon town Bell Metal artisans also live in other villages like Barkai, Karanpur, Jagdalpur, Dahikonga etc. A village-wise list of number of artisans is given below. No. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Name of the Village Bhelwapadar Para- KONDAGAON Khorkosa Karanpur Barkai Bhanpuri Dahikonga Alwahi No. of Artisans Family 100 15 12 8 4 6 20</p> <p>In India, the commercial trading of this craft (Forest Based Metal Craft) began at Moradabad. At other places, the craft was only fulfilling the needs of the local people.</p> <p>2. THE HISTORICAL PERSPECTIVEThe Bell Metal craft of Bastar is an ancient skill that according to the local artisans is about 500 years old. The craft received patronage from the Royal families, who used to pay the artisans to make idols. However, earlier the art was practiced only by the Gadwa tribals but after 1950 there has been an increase 3</p> <p>KONDAGAON BELL METAL CLUSTER</p> <p>in the number of artisans. The actual growth of the cluster began in late 1960s. The following presents a checkered history of the growth of Bell Metal at Kondagaon</p> <p>(I) UPTO 1960 - A HIDDEN ART:The artisans used to work for the Royal families of Bastar and make tribal idolatry statues. There were very few artisans at that time.</p> <p>(II) 1960 TO 1970- RECEIVES RECOGNITION AT NATIONAL LEVEL:In 1960 after the Bangla -refugee rehabilitation or the D.N.K. project started, some I.A.S. and I.C.S. officers were posted in the region for administering the settlement activities. With these officers, some famous leaders and media people were also attracted to visit the place. This filtering-in of people from various regions gave an automatic popularity to the Bell Metal craft and soon the sector found space in Newspapers. Even officers who were posted there at that time felt the potential of the craft and tried to develop it further.</p> <p>(III) 1970 TO 1980- HONOUR OF ARTISANS:In this decade, a few famous artisans of Bastar were given various state and national level awards. Also during this time, many exhibitions of the craft were organised in various cities of India, which made it move towards highly popular.</p> <p>(IV) 1980-1990- RECEIVED INTERNATIONAL REPUTE:During this period Mr. Jaidev Baghel, one of the bell metal artisans from Kondagaon achieved international p opularity. This attracted the attention of traders world-wide towards Kondagaon and as a result the new generation in the village also started taking keen interest in the trade. Many exporters from metro cities, after seeing the potential and glamour in the craft took training for developing the same.</p> <p>(V) 1990-2000- A TIME OF DIVERSIFICATION:As the Bell Metal products started easily flowing into the external markets, the number of artisans involved in the craft increased and so did the production. Various growth measures like formation of groups of artisans, development of new designs etc were carried through with the help of Government Interventions. But at the same time, there was an increased competition amongst the artisans and it led to unhealthy practices. Because of working capital problems, the artisans who organised themselves in groups and pooled their resources. But those who were dependent on external buyers only, had to face many problems and sometimes they even had to loose their capital.</p> <p>4</p> <p>KONDAGAON BELL METAL CLUSTER</p> <p>3. THE PRODUCTION DETAILS3.1 THE PROCESSThe Dokara art is a major attraction of Bastar. They are prepared by the Ghadawa community and hence it is also known as the Ghadawa art. The Ghadawas are small artisan groups who produce brass or bell metal objects. The name Ghadwa is derived from the world 'Ghalna', which means to melt and as these people prepare the craft items by melting the metal using a lost wax technique, so they are given the name 'Ghadwa'. The raw materials such as wax and metal are purchased from market. The others like clay and fire wood etc. are collected from the nearby forest itself. First the artisans prepare images with a type of clay called 'man-matti', which is collected from river bed or from rice fields. When the image becomes dry, they are coated or plastered with another type of clay called 'rui-matti', which is obtained from an ant hill. This clay is also available in that part of the river where there is water current. The rui matti is mixed with cow dung and sand, and then is applied as a coating on the images to five them a final shape. Then the images are dried in the sun. The next step is to wax them. The wax wires are prepared by pure bees wax. The wires are separated and attached with the clay model from its front to back in a round fashion. The whole of the clay image is covered with the wax wires and then they make several designs with these wires. After the desired designs on the image are completed, it is immediately coated again with clay. This time they use local soil added with sand and goat dung. Sometimes this is done by mixing ant-hill earth with rice husk. At the time of coating, a hole or an opening is generally kept at the base of the image. The metal is then taken in a container named 'machhi'. Generally the metal is brass or bell metal. The container is then covered with a 'ghaili', a clay cup and is put into the furnace for two to three hours. After that the molten metal is poured on to the image through the opening. Then the mould is kept for cooling. And after that water is sprinkled on the image, which makes the clay coat to crack and break. The metal moulds into the shapes and designs made by the wax wires. Thus at last an artistic bell metal or brass object is ready. The image is then scrubbed with sandy clay to give it shine. Sometimes they are even polished with wet tamarind.</p> <p>5</p> <p>KONDAGAON BELL METAL CLUSTER</p> <p>3.2 RAW MATERIAL REQUIREMENT OF THE CLUSTERSl_No. 1. 2. 3. Material Bess Wax Brass Metal Fire wood Quantity (for 1 month) 200 Kg 2000 Kg. 20000 Kg. Rate 120/- Kg. 100/- Kg. 120/- Kg. Amount 24,000 2,00,000 24,000,00</p> <p>3.3 THE WORK ENVIRONMENTAll individuals and group artisans work around their houses or at a common place. A majority of the artisans do not have working sheds or storage facilities.1</p> <p>3.4 THE CLUSTER MAPThe following gives a graphical representation of the cluster actors and the linkages between them.</p> <p>1</p> <p>Please refer to Annexure 2 for list of SMEs in Kondagaon Cluster</p> <p>6</p> <p>KONDAGAON BELL METAL CLUSTER</p> <p>KONDAGAON BILL METAL CLUSTERFinished Product Local Market National Market International Market</p> <p>Exporters at Mumbai, Nagpur, New Delhi, Bangalore etc.</p> <p>Chhattisgarh Bell Metal Sub Sector Govt. Support Institution DCH MPHSVN Zilla Panchyat DIC Jagdalpur MPALKP SCZCC Nagar Kondagaon Cluster 110 artisans Raw Material From forest From Kondagaon</p> <p>Financial Institution Lead Bank: SBI SIDBI NABARD</p> <p>Non Govt. Support Institution SAATHI PBSP Shilpgram BCDA 7</p> <p>KONDAGAON BELL METAL CLUSTER</p> <p>4. SKETCH OF OTHER ENTERPRISES AND INSTITUTIONS4.1 LOCAL INSTITUTIONS1) Saathi Samaj Sevi Sanstha: The organisation is seriously working for the revival of traditional handicrafts since 1989. The main focus of Saathi was to foster development of pottery-making artisans but after 1997 they expanded their focus and included other crafts also as part of their mandate. Saathi is presently working on the following aspects related to handicrafts: Technology Development Design Development Marketing Assistance Social Support, Awareness Generation However a lack of funds and a shortage of skilled professionals has been a major hindrance in the works of this organisation. 2) Pramparik Bastar Shilpi Pariwar (PBSP): The PBSP was founded in 1985 and at that time it had a large number of artisans as its members. In the past, the organisation has carried out many developmental activities for the welfare of artisans, but now days it has become almost non functional. It is unable to take responsibilities of the artisans and due to this reason the Bell Metal artisans do not have trust in them. The major problems with PBSP are a lack of Identity and a shortage of professionals. 3) Madhya Pradesh Hast Shilp Vikas Nigam (MPH.SVN) MPH.SVN is working in Bastar since last two decades. Unfortunately being a Government institution, the artisans do not find themselves friendly and comfortable with them. Although it has done some developmental work on Tool design, Marketing, Training etc yet now after division of M.P., the fate of this institute is undecided and the staff members are uncertain about future. 4) Development Commissioner (Handicraft): The Development Commissioner (Handicraft) under the Textile Ministry was started 27 years ago with an exclusive mandate for development of artisans. There are many promotional and development programmes organised by this department but still a lot needs to be done to fully benefit the artisans. There is a lack of awareness amongst the artisans and also a faulty system design wherein the artisans are unable to link themselves with the programmes of this department. A wide geographical area under the Jagdalpur office jurisdiction which becomes unapproachable, a shortage of Manpower and a lack of essential resources, are some of the main problems faced by this department.</p> <p>8</p> <p>KONDAGAON BELL METAL CLUSTER</p> <p>4.2 NEED FOR AN EFFECTIVE SERVICE INSTITUTIONAlthough t e Bell Metal crafts have a huge potential both in domestic as well as in the international h markets yet no significant work has been done to promote the same. Some serious attention is required to be given for technology development, develo...</p>