Muzeul Olteniei Craiova. Oltenia. Studii i comunicri. tiinele Naturii. Tom. 33, No. 2/2017 ISSN 1454-6914
BEHAVIOR OF VINE VARIETIES WITH BIOLOGICAL TOLERANCE UNDER GIURGIU AREA CONDITIONS
VIAN Valerica Luminia, TAMBA-BEREHOIU Radiana-Maria, POPA Ciprian Nicolae, DANIL-GUIDEA Silvana Mihaela
Abstract. Technological, biochemical and agrobiological studies have been carried out on varieties of vines with biological tolerance in the climatic conditions of Giurgiu area, Romania. The determinations focused on the phenology of varieties, fertility coefficients and productivity indices, the behavior of these varieties on the main diseases of vines, the physical-mechanical characteristics and the technological indices; also, the musts have been analyzed biochemically, including the main flavoring compounds. For the determination of aromatic compounds in grape must, gas chromatography/mass spectrometry methods were used. The studied vine varieties were: Perla de Zala and Moldova (table vine varieties) and Radames (variety of wine). In ecopedoclimatic terms from Giurgiu area, varieties mature in the ages III (Perla de Zala) and VI (Moldova and Radames). The results showed that under the conditions of the analyzed area the varieties entered faster in vegetation and had a slightly higher percentage of fertile shoots than the average recorded in other areas of culture. Fertility coefficients and productivity indices have also been higher in this area. Regarding the tolerance to the main diseases of the vine, the varieties behaved somewhat similarly to other areas of culture, Perla de Zala registering a higher degree of attack compared to the other 2 analyzed varieties. Chromatographic gas analysis revealed 28 volatile grape compounds that determine the variety of the analyzed varieties. The results showed a lower number of esters compared to those identified in vinifera varieties; in higher concentrations, for all 3 varieties, there were identified: 1-hexanol, caprylic acid, ethyl acetate and 2-pentanones. Among the terpenes, limonene was found in the highest concentration. Keywords: gas chromatography/mass spectrometry methods, downy mildew, grey mold. Rezumat. Comportamentul soiurilor de vi-de-vie cu rezisten biologic n condiiile zonei Giurgiu. Au fost realizate studii agrobiologice, tehnologice i biochimice asupra unor soiuri de vi de vie cu toleran biologic, n condiiile climatice ale zonei Giurgiu, Romania. Determinrile au vizat fenologia soiurilor, coeficienii de fertilitate i indicii de productivitate, comportamentul acestor soiuri la pricipalele boli ale viei de vie, caracteristicile fizico-mecanice i indicii tehnologici; deasemenea, musturile au fost analizate din punct de vedere biochimic, inclusiv privind principalii compui de aroma varietal. Pentru determinarea compuilor aromatici din mustul de struguri s-a utilizat metoda gaz cromatografic cuplat cu spectrometria de mas. Soiurile de vi de vie studiate au fost: Perla de Zala i Moldova (soiuri de masa) i Radames (soi de vin). In condiiile ecopedoclimatice ale zonei Giurgiu, soiurile se matureaz n epocile III (Perla de Zala) i VI (Moldova i Radames). Rezultatele au artat ca n condiiile zonei analizate soiurile au intrat mai repede n vegetaie i au avut un procent uor mai ridicat de lstari fertili dect media inregistrat n alte zone de cultur. Coeficienii de fertilitate i indicii de productivitate au avut, deasemenea valori crescute n aceast zon. In ceea ce privete tolerana la principalele boli ale viei de vie soiurile s-au comportat oarecum asemntor ca n alte zone de cultur, Perla de Zala nregistrnd un grad de atac mai mare n comparaie cu celelalte 2 soiuri analizate. Analiza gaz cromatografic a pus n eviden 28 de compui volatili din struguri care determin aroma varietal a soiurilor analizate. Rezultatele au artat un numr mai mic de esteri n comparaie cu cei identificai n soiurile vinifera; n concentraii mai ridicate, n cazul tuturor celor 3 soiuri au fost identificai: 1-hexanolul, acidul caprilic, ethyl acetatul i 2-pentanone. Dintre terpene, limonenul s-a regsit n concentraia cea mai ridicat. Cuvinte cheie: metoda cromatografie gazoas/spectrometrie de mas, mana viei de vie, putregaiul cenuiu.
Vine varieties with biological tolerance are interspecific hybrids, resulted by hybridization between the
European varieties of vine Vitis vinifera and hybrids directly producers, coming from the American species (ROBINSON, 1986). The interspecific hybrids divided by generation, in the American old hybrids (first generation), were represented by varieties brought from the American continent, created before the invasion of phylloxera in Europe: Noah, Isabelle, Lidia, Delaware, Othello, etc.; Euro x American hybrids (second generation, result of crossing between hybrids from the first generation with noble vines): Seibel 1, Seibel 1000, Terras 20, Rayon dor, etc. and the varieties with biological resistance, resulted from multiple crossings between vinifera vines with American hybrids (GALET, 1979).
The vine varieties with biological resistance, named by some authors, varieties with biological tolerance, have a lower resistance to the main diseases and pests of vines compared with the old hybrids, but much higher than the vinifera noble varieties, thus requiring a much smaller number of phytosanitary treatments (CATTELL, 1979; VIAN et al., 2014).
Although their quality does not equal the noble varieties, these varieties have their importance in winemaking, both in improving vine and obtaining green products (juice, alcoholic and non-alcoholic drinks, in different types of food industry).
In many countries in Europe, but especially in the US, they get natural juices of grapes, various foods, as well as nutritional supplements from hybrid grapes (ELFVING, 1992; VIAN et al., 2015).
VIAN Valerica Luminia TAMBA-BEREHOIU Radiana-Maria POPA Ciprian Nicolae DANIL-GUIDEA Silvana Mihaela
MATERIALS AND METHODS
Vine varieties with biological tolerance Perla de Zala, Moldova and Radames were studied under the ecopedoclimatic conditions of Giurgiu area. The study, conducted over a period of three years, referred to determining phenology variety, fertility, the agrobiological characterization of varieties (percentage of fertile shoots, the fertility coefficients, productivity indices, reaction to major diseases and pests of the vine) and technological characterization of variety (total production grapes/ha, physical and mechanical characteristics of the grapes, technological indices).
The fertility of the shoots was determined by counting the inflorescences, total shoots and fertile shoots. Absolute and relative fertility coefficients were calculated using computation formulas. The productivity of varieties was determined at full grape maturation, using absolute and relative productivity indices (TARDEA & DEJEU, 1995).
The average grape weight at full maturity was calculated by weighing 50 grapes and calculating the average. The production of grapes per hectare was calculated according to the production of grapes on the hub and the number of hubs per hectare (OLOBEANU, 1980).
In order to assess the behavior at the main diseases of the vine, the degree of attack was determined (DA), calculated according to the relation: (frequency of attack x intensity) / 100 (TOMOIAG, 2006).
Grape musts were analyzed under sugar and total acidity terms (after the standardized methods in effect) and characterized in terms of concentration in volatile compound by gas chromatography method coupled with mass spectrometry.
Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS): Juice Preparation. The grapes from the three studied vine varieties were harvested at full maturity. Maturity was estimated by
content in sugars (g/L), titrable acidity (g/L sulfuric acid) and berry size. After harvesting, grapes were crushed and pressed with a laboratory winepress. The must was homogenized, filtered and stored at -18C prior to extraction of volatile compounds.
Extraction of Volatile Compounds. At the extraction of the volatile compounds, it was used a continuous extractor liquid-liquid. Two hundred
milliliters of juice (containing internal standard IS: 1-heptanol) placed in a conical flask, were extracted with 5 mL of distilled dichloromethane (Merck, Darmstadt, Germany) by stirring for 30 min at 0C and then centrifuged for 15 min at 10000 g. The extract was dried with 4 g sodium sulfate and stored at -18C until analysis (SEROT et al., 2001; BAEK et al., 1997; VIAN et al., 2007).
Gas Chromatography/Mass Spectrometry (GC/MS) The GC/MS system includes a Hewlett Packard 5890 Series II gas chromatograph and a Hewlett Packard 5971
mass spectrometer. Each extract was injected 1 l in the spitless mode (200C injector temperature, 60 sec valve delay) into a capillary column (DB-Wax, 30 m length x 0.32 mm internal diameter x 0.5 m film thickness). The flow rate of helium (carrier gas) was 1 mL/min. Oven temperature was programmed from 50 to 200C at a rate of 3C/min with initial and final hold times of 5 and 50 min (GUTH et al., 1997).
In case of mass spectrometer, the conditions were: ion source temperature: 280C; ionization energy: 70 eV; mass range: 30-350 a.m.u.; electron multiplier voltage: 2100 V; scan rate: 2.2 sec-1.
The identification of volatile compounds was based on comparison of GC retention indices (RI), mass spectra (comparison with MS spectra database and internal library of the laboratory) and odor properties (TRANCHANT, 1995; LE GUEN et al., 2000).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS
Perla de Zala table variety (synonyms: Zala Gngye, Egri Csillagok 24, Perle von Zala, Zala Dende), genitors (Villard blanc x SV 12 375) x Perla de Csaba (Vitis vinifera variety), brea