Beekman5 std ppt_10

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  • 1. Chapter 10 Inside the Internetand the Web

2. Topics

  • The Internet: A Network of Networks
  • Internet Applications: Communication and Connection
  • Inside the World Wide Web
  • The Evolving Internet

Its a bit like climbing a mountain. You dont know how far youve come until you stop and look back. Vint Cerf 3.

  • TheInternetis an interconnected network of thousands of networks linking academic, research, government, and commercial institutions.

The Internet:A Network of Networks 4.

  • The Internet provides scientists, engineers, educators, students, business people, and others with a variety of services such as:
    • Electronic mail(send/receive mail messages)
    • Remote login (T elnet - access to other computers)

Internet Services 5. Internet Services

    • Transferring files (FTP - accessing archives of data)
    • Newsgroups (Usenet - on-line public discussions)
    • World Wide Web (a collection of multimedia documents)

6. Counting Connections

  • Today, the Internet connects computers to about every country in the world.However, the Internet is:
    • growing too fast to measure its growth
    • too decentralized to quantify
    • a network with no hard boundaries

7.

  • The language at the heart of the Internet isTCP/IP
    • Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
    • Allows cross-network communication

Internet Protocols 8. Internet Protocols

  • TCPbreaks messages into packets
    • Each packet has all the information needed to travel from network to network
    • Host systems calledRoutersdetermine how to route transmissions

9. Internet Protocols

  • IPis the address for the packets
    • Each Internet host computer has a uniqueIP Address
    • Each address is comprised of four sets of numbers separated by periods, such as123.23.168.22

10. Internet Addresses

  • The host is named using DNS (domain name system), which translates IP addresses into a string of names.

Each person on the Internet has a unique e-mail address created by having a squirrel run across a computer keyboard. Dave Barry 11. Internet Addresses

  • Top level domains include:
    • . edu - educational sites
    • .com - commercial sites
    • .gov - government sites
    • .mil - military sites
    • .net - network administration sites
    • .org - nonprofit organizations

12. Internet Addresses

  • An Internet address includes: username@hostname.sub.dom
    • usernameis the persons mailbox
    • hostnameis the name of the host computer and is followed by one or more domains separated by periods:
      • host.subdomain.domain
      • host.domain
      • host.subdomain.subdomain.domain

13. Internet Addresses

  • [email_address]

Examples: [email_address] UserPresidentwhose mail is stored on the hostwhitehousein thegovernmentdomain Userhazel_filbertat the server forLane County, Oregon, k-12school district 14.

  • Direct (dedicated) Connection

Internet Access Options

  • Computer has its own IP address andis attached to a LAN
  • No need to dial up
  • Files are stored on your computer
  • Response time is quick

15. Internet Access Options

  • Dialup Connections
    • limited connection using a modem
    • Full access dial up uses SLIP or PPP via modem
  • Broadband Connections
  • DSL service is newer, faster, and cheaper than ISDN
  • Can share phone line with voice traffic

16. Internet Access Options

  • Cable Modem Connection
    • allow Internet connections using shared TV cables
    • can exceed DSL speeds
    • Carry increased privacy and security risks
  • Satellite Connections
    • provides connections using DirecTV satellite dishes

17. Internet Access Options

  • Internet Service Providers (ISPs)
    • local ISPs provide connections throughlocal telephone lines
    • national ISPs offer connections on a nationwide scale

18.

  • The Internet use the client/server modelfor most Internet applications.
  • In the client/server model a client program asks for information, and a server program fields the request and provides the requested information from databases and documents.

Internet Applications: Communication and Connection 19.

  • Anemail serveracts like a local post office for a particular Internet hosta business, an organization, or an ISP.
  • File servers are common within LANs, but theyre also used to share programs, media files, and other computer data across the Internet.

Internet Applications: Communication and Connection 20.

  • File transfer protocol (FTP)allows users to download files from remote servers to their computers and to upload files.
  • File compressionsaves storage space on disk and saves transmission time when files are transferred through networks.

Internet Applications: Communication and Connection 21.

  • Anapplication serverstores applications- PC office applications, databases, or other applications - and makes them available to client programs that request them.
  • An application server might be housed at anapplication service provider (ASP) -a company that manages and delivers application services on a contract basis.
  • AWeb serverstores Web pages and sends pages to client Web browsers.

Internet Applications: Communication and Connection 22.

  • WWWis a distributed browsing and searching system developed at CERN
  • System was designed to give Internet documents unique addresses
  • HTMLlanguage was created for encoding and displaying documents
  • Browser software was built for viewing documents from remote locations

Inside the Web 23. Inside the Web

  • Web pagesare made up of text and images
  • AWeb siteis a collection of web pages
  • AHome pageis the main entry to a Web site
  • AWeb browserlike Netscape Communicator or Internet Explorer allows you to explore the Web by clicking links

Web site Jargon: 24. Inside the Web Hyperlinks (links) are words or pictures that act as buttons, allowing you to go to another Web page

    • Links are typically underlined or displayed in a different color

25. Inside the Web

  • More Web site Jargon
  • Linksallow you to locate information without knowing its exact location (it may move from time to time)
  • BackandForwardbuttons let you retrace your steps
  • BookmarksandFavoritescan be set up to mark your favorite Web locations

26. Web Addresses PronouncedEarl like the name A typicalURLlooks like this: http://www.prenhall.com.beekman 27. Web Addresses

  • Protocol for Web pages
  • Dissecting Web Page address:

Resource Page http:// www.vote-smart.org/ Path to the host help/database.html 28. Publishing on the Web

  • AnHTMLdocument includes codes that determines the format, layout, and structure of a Web document

HTML (Hypertext Markup Language) HTML isnotWYSIWYG 29. Publishing on the Web

  • This text coded asHTML

Appears like this on the screen

    • Welcome to Computer Confluence Publishing on the Web

30. Publishing on the Web

  • Alternatives to HTML
  • Programs that convert document format features into HTML codes
    • Microsoft Word, FileMaker
  • Web authoring programs
    • HomePage,GoLive,FrontPage

31. From Hypertext to Multimedia

  • Tables
  • Frames
  • Forms
  • Downloadableaudio and video
    • Streaming audio and video
    • Real-time liveaudio or video
    • 3-D environments

Typical Web pages can contain: 32. From Hypertext to Multimedia

  • Plug-Insare software extensions that add new features. Examples include
  • QuickTime
  • Shock