BBI2412 WRITING FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES. Four types of sentences, which are: 1. Simple sentences 2. Compound sentences 3. Complex sentences 4. Compound-complex.

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<ul><li><p>BBI2412 WRITING FOR ACADEMIC PURPOSES</p></li><li><p>Four types of sentences, which are:</p><p>Simple sentencesCompound sentencesComplex sentencesCompound-complex sentences</p></li><li><p>A simple sentence is also known as independent clause.A simple sentence has one main clause, contains a subject and a verb, and it expresses a complete thought. </p><p>Juan and Arturo play football every afternoon. Alicia goes to the library and studies every day. </p></li><li><p>A clause is a group of words that contains a subject and a verb. The major types:independent clauses dependent clauses</p><p>Independent clause can stand alone as a sentence. I still need the camera </p><p>Dependent clause cannot stand alone as a sentence, and it must be attached to an independent clause. I still need the camera because it is the only reason anyone is talking to me</p></li><li><p>Two or more independent clauses joined together. There are three ways to join the clauses:1. With a coordinator2. With a conjunctive adverb3. With a semicolon</p></li><li><p>Contains two independent clauses joined by coordinator. The coordinators are as follows : for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so. (Hint: FANBOYS)For a very short sentences, coordinators are always preceded by a comma. </p><p> I tried to speak Spanish, and my friend tried to speak in English. Alejandro played football, so Maria went shopping. </p></li><li><p>Coordinating ConjunctionExampleFor has the same meaning as because; use for to introduce a reason or a cause.It is not easy to get there, for you have to hike down a long, hot trail. And joins sentences that are alike.He dropped a rice ball, and it rolled into a hole in the ground.Nor means not this and not that; use nor to join two negative sentences. The book isnt long, nor is it difficult to read.But joins sentences that are opposite or show contrast. They were happy, but they were poor.Or joins sentences that give choices or alternatives.He could choose a big box, or he could choose a small one. Yet has approximately the same meaning as but. Use yet when the second part of the sentence says something unexpected or surprising.The weather is beautiful today, yet it is supposed to rain today. So joins sentences when the second sentence expresses the result of something described in the first sentence.The greedy man wanted all of the mices gold, so he pretended to be a cat. </p></li><li><p>Independent clause; + conjunctive adverb, + independent clause</p><p> The tire was flat; therefore, we called a service station.</p><p> It was a hot day; nevertheless, the roofers worked on the project all day.</p></li><li><p>We can join independent clauses (IC) to create compound sentences by using a semicolon (;). This kind of compound sentence is possible only when the two independent clauses are closely related in meaning. I am going home; I intend to stay there. It rained heavily during the afternoon; we managed to have our picnic anyway. They couldn't make it to the summit and back before dark; they decided to camp for the night.</p></li><li><p>A complex sentence has an independent clause joined by one or more dependent clauses. A complex sentence always has a subordinator such as because, since, after, although, or when or a relative pronoun such as that, who, or which. A. When he handed in his homework, he forgot to give the teacher the last page. B. The teacher returned the homework after she noticed the error. C. The students are studying because they have a test tomorrow. D. After they finished studying, Juan and Maria went to the movies. E. Juan and Maria went to the movies after they finished studying.</p></li><li><p>When a complex sentence begins with a subordinator, a comma is required at the end of the dependent clause. (sentences A and D)</p><p>When the independent clause begins the sentence with subordinators in the middle, no comma is required. (sentences B, C, and E)</p><p>If comma is placed before the subordinators, it is wrong. </p></li><li><p>One idea is more important than the other.More important idea in the independent clause and less important in the dependent clause.There are three kinds of dependent clauses which are adverb, adjective, and noun.There are three ways to join the clauses which are:</p><p> 1. Complex sentences with adverb clauses. 2. Complex sentences with adjective clauses. 3. Complex sentences with noun clauses.</p></li><li><p>An adverb clause acts like an adverb, it tells where, when, why, and how.An adverb clause begins with subordinator as follows: Time: after, before, when, while, as, by the time, whenever, since, until, as soon as, once, as long as Cause and effect: because, since, now that, as, as long as, inasmuch as, so (that), in order that Contrast: although, even though, though, whereas, while Condition: if, unless, only if, whether or not, even if, providing (that), provided (that), in case, in the event (that). </p></li><li><p>Examples:</p><p> After he took lessons, George could swim well. Billy drowned because he couldnt swim.Although he isnt interested in food, Fred works as a cook.If you want to write well, you must practice. </p></li><li><p>An adjective clause acts as an adjective, which describes a noun or pronoun. It begins with a relative pronoun such as:</p><p>WHO replaces nouns and pronouns that refer to people. It cannot replace nouns and pronouns that refer to animals or things. It can be the subject of a verb.</p><p> WHOM replaces nouns and pronouns that refer to people. It cannot replace nouns and pronouns that refer to animals or things. It can be the object of a verb or preposition. It cannot be the subject of a verb. </p></li><li><p> WHICH replaces nouns and pronouns that refer to animals or things. It cannot replace nouns and pronouns that refer to people. It can be the subject of a verb. It can also be the object of a verb or preposition. </p><p>THAT replaces nouns and pronouns that refer to people, animals or things. It can be the subject of a verb. It can also be the object of a verb or preposition</p><p> WHOSE replaces possessive forms of nouns and pronouns .It can refer to people, animals or things. It can be part of a subject or part of an object of a verb or preposition, but it cannot be a complete subject or object. Whose cannot be omitted.</p></li><li><p>An adjective clause can also begin with relative adverb.</p><p>It begins with a relative adverb such as:</p><p> WHERE replaces a place (in + country, in + city, at + school,...). It cannot be a subject. It can be omitted but a preposition (at, in, to) usually must be added.</p><p> WHEN replaces a time (in + year, in + month, on + day,...). It cannot be a subject. It can be omitted</p></li><li><p> People who live in glass houses should not throw stones.</p><p> Mary applied for a job that was advertised in the paper. </p><p>The building where he works is new.</p></li><li><p>A noun clause acts like a noun; it can be either the subject or an object of independent clause. What Billy did shocked his friends. Billys friends didnt know that he couldnt swim.</p><p>The subordinators in noun clauses are called noun clause markers. Here is a list of the noun clause markers: that if, whether Wh-words: how, what, when, where, which, who, whom, whose, why Wh-ever words: however, whatever, whenever, wherever, whichever, whoever, whomever</p></li><li><p>Mark Twain, who is a famous American novelist, illustrated American life in the industrialization period in his novels.</p><p>The teacher, who had a British accent, confused the student</p></li><li><p>A compound-complex sentence is made from two independent clause and one or more dependent clauses. Some examples: Although I like to go camping, I haven't had the time to go lately, and I haven't found anyone to go with. </p><p> independent clause: "I haven't had the time to go lately" independent clause: "I haven't found anyone to go with" dependent clause: "Although I like to go camping... " </p></li><li><p> We decided that the movie was too violent, but our children, who like to watch scary movies, thought that we were wrong. </p><p> independent clause: "We decided that the movie was too violent" independent clause: "(but) our children thought that we were wrong" dependent clause: who like to watch scary movies </p></li></ul>

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