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Baroque Revision

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Baroque Art revision, including architecture, sculpture and painting.

Text of Baroque Revision

  • 1. BAROQUE ART Revision

2. Cronology and geography

  • From the end of 16th century until 1750.
  • Geography: whole Europe+ America.
  • Characteristics of the period:
    • Religious and political conflicts
    • Geographical colonization
    • Scientific development
    • New astrological discoveries Sun centre of Universe

3. Baroque Style

  • The word means imperfection
  • New naturalism that reflects the scientific advances
  • Taste for dramatic action and emotion:
    • Colour and light contrasted
    • Rich textures
    • Asymmetrical spaces
    • Diagonal plans
    • New subjects: landscape, genre, still-life

4. Baroque Style

  • Variety within the style
  • Art at the service of power
  • Two main centres:
    • Rome: Popes authority
    • France: powerful monarchy
  • Influence of the Counter-Reform
  • Worry about plastic values

5. Architecture: Characteristics

  • Long narrow naves replaced by broader or circular forms
  • Dramatic use of light
  • Opulent use of ornaments
  • Large-scale ceiling frescoes
  • External faade with dramatic central projection
  • Interior a shell for painting and sculpture
  • Illusory effects
  • Onion domes in Eastern Europe

6. Architecture: Italy

  • They evolved from the Renaissance forms
  • Movement toward grand structures with flowing, curving shapes
  • Landscape was frequently incorporated
  • New elements as gardens, squares , courtyards and fountains.
  • Influence of the rebuilding of Saint Peter, in which classical forms integrated with the city.

7. Architecture: Italy

  • Maderno
    • He made the Vaticans faade
    • His work destroyed partially Michelangelos design
    • His work combined the dome with the creation of an space where the Pope could appear publicaly
    • Other works:
      • Santa maria della Vittoria
      • Palazzo Barberini

8. Architecture: Italy

  • Longhena
    • He worked mainly in Venice
    • His design was selected for building Santa Maria della Salute
    • It is building of central plan with a great dome that became the symbol of Venice.

9. Architecture: Italy

  • Bernini
    • He created a fusion of architecture, painting and sculpture
    • He used false perspective and trompe-l oeil to impact
    • He used a palace faade that became a model with massive pilasters above a rusticated base.
    • Works:
      • Saint Peters square
      • Baldaquin

10. Architecture: Italy

  • Borromini
    • His works spring from the contrast between convention and freedom
    • He used tradition as a basis, but not as a law
    • Works:
      • San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane
      • San Carlo Borromeo
      • Oratorio degli Fillipenses

11. Architecture: France

  • It was elegant, ordered, rational and restraided
  • It is a rectilinear model, closer to classicism
  • It aimed at showing the power of Louis XIV monarchy.
  • The main works are:
    • Louvre: Le Vay and Perrault
    • Versailles: Le Brun, Le Vau, Le Notre

12. Architecture: Central Europe

  • It began later due to the Thirty Years War
  • Austria developed the Imperial style with Fischer von Erlach and Hildebrandt
  • In Germany, in the Catholic South Jesuit models were followed while in the Protestant North works were less important
  • Palace architecture was important in the whole area

13. Architecture: England and Russia

  • In England is important Wren
  • Baroque was the style used to design town planning
  • In Russia it is very decorative, in quite traditional churches sometimes made of brick; later it was imported from the Low Countries and finally it became an extravagant art.

14. Architecture: Spain

  • At the beginning it continued the pattern of the Escorial
  • Decoration tends to concentrate just in the faade
  • The Rococo was the time of the development of the Churrigueresque style, with exaggerated decoration around the door
  • The Plateresque (last Renaissance that imitates the work on silver) and the Churrigueresque were exported to America, mainly to Mexico.

15. Sculpture

  • It is one of the most popular arts.
  • The clients are the church and the nobility.
  • It is the way of expression of different religious believes.
  • It was used as a way of advertising power
  • Works are located in public places, such as courtyards and fountains.

16. Sculpture: Characteristics

  • Creation of images that can be seen from different points of view.
  • Tendency to open structures.
  • Complicated lines, being the diagonal the most used.
  • Interest for the effects of light:
    • different treatment of surfaces
    • Resource to breaking wall to get the ideal illumination

17. Sculpture: Characteristics

  • Combination of different materials in the same work
  • Grandiloquence of the gestures
  • Human treatment of the depicted characters
  • Mythological and religious images frull of humanities and passions
  • Perfect organisation of the volumes to obtain the desired effect

18. Sculpture: Characteristics

  • Tension and drama: moment of maximum tension
  • Violent contrast of light and shadows
  • Types of sculptures:
    • Relief
    • Portrait
    • Equestrian portrait
    • Allegories
    • Mythological stories
    • Religious
    • Easter sculptures (Spain)
    • Fountains
    • Pantheons
  • Regional differences

19. Sculpture: Italy

  • Bernini
    • He created a new style in sculpture
    • Sources of inspiration were the paintings of his contemporaries
    • Sense of drama and naturalism (following Caravaggio)
    • Captured in stone frozen moment of human bodies in motion
    • Works:
      • Apollo and Daphne
      • Sainte Therese Ecstasy
      • Fountain of the Four Rivers
      • Fountain of the Triton

20. Sculpture: France

  • Girardon
    • Quite classical conception
    • He worked for Louis XIV
    • Author of fountains (Apollo Tended by Nymphs), pantheons (Richelieu)
  • Puget
    • Impassioned work
    • Formed in Italy
    • Expressed physical vigour and emotional intensity
    • Work: Milon of Crotona

21. Sculpture: Spain

  • Religious sculpture had an important development
  • It is realised for the Easter parades.
  • Characteristics:
    • Humanity (passions, mainly sufferance)
    • Symbols of sufferance: blood
    • Individual or group images
    • Wood is the most used material (polychrome)
    • Additional elements: real clothes, glazed eyes, hair
    • Common images:
      • Painful Virgin (Dolorosa)
      • Ecce Homo (Christ tied up to a column)
      • Death Christ
      • Calvary

22. Sculpture: Spain

  • Castilian School: Gregorio Fernandez
    • His style evolved from the refinement and elegance of Court Mannerism to Baroque naturalism
    • Master in depicting the human body with anatomical detail, tension in muscles, strength of bones and softness of flesh and skin
    • Clothing heavy and flat, with rigid and angular folders, producing contrast of light and shadows
    • Dramatic expressions
    • Simple polychromes (flat colours)
    • Works: Virgin with the Dead Christ, Road to the Calvary, Saint Theresa

23. Sculpture: Spain

  • Andalusian School:
  • Greater classical tradition
  • Artist maintained the aesthetic of latter Mannerism (athletic figures, elegant composition, and idealised beauty)
  • Incorporation of the effects of naturalism in emotions
  • Artists: Martinez Montaes, Alonso Cano, Pedro de Mena, Jose de Mora

24. Sculpture: Spain

  • Andalusian School:
    • Martinez Montaes: The God of Wood
      • Combined love of beauty and serenity of the Mannerism with the naturalism of the Baroque
      • Elegant figures in restful poses
      • Human and contained emotions
      • Saint John the Evangelist
    • Alonso Cano
      • Combines classicism and Baroque
      • Purity of form, delicacy and contaiment of expression
      • Careful anatomy and slender outline
      • Oval faces, eyes with melancholic and pensive gaze
      • Saint John the Baptists

25. Sculpture: Spain

  • Andalusian School:
    • Pedro de Mena:
      • Greater simplification of form
      • Spiritual content
      • Pure sentiments or states of mind: ecstasy
      • Saint Peter of Alcntara, Ecce Homo
    • Jose de Mora:
      • Simplicity and expression
      • Realistic pain
      • Faces with expression of introspection and sad gazes
      • Impossibility of consolation
      • Virgin of Solitude

26. Sculpture: Spain

  • Pasos or processional scenes
    • Made of light but fragile materials at the beginning
    • Wooden carvings popular since 17th century
    • Polychrome and with fake additions: glass eyes and tears, ivory teeth, hair
    • Viewpoints should be taken into account
    • Different work in characters:
      • Goodies: meticolous, pretty to look, dressed in timeless clothing
      • Baddies: less detail, no additions, ugly and unpleasant, clothing from the time they were made

27. Sculpture: Spain

    • Mounted in wooden platforms: scenes seemed almost alive with the movement
    • Main images desmounted and put in altars and baddies packed
    • There were famous those of Valladolid, made by Gregorio Fernandez
    • Decadence during the 18th century

28. Sculpture: Spain

  • In the late Baroque there were French and Italian influences
  • Creation of a new classicism
  • Murcia took relevance: Salcillo
    • Influenced by the Neapolitan school (Belen tradition)
    • Movement, delicacy and tender beauty
    • Perfection of form, serch of elegance and refinement
    • Great dynamism
    • Added materials and polychrome
  • Luisa Roldan
    • Larger sife sized an small terra-cotta compositions

29. Painting

  • Subjects: religious and profane (mythological, allegorical, historical or portraits)
  • Composition: complicated; taste for big groups, with different centres of attention. Portraits are just essential
  • Lines: dynamic and complicate. Diagonal is the most used or combinations of horizontal and vertical
  • Colour: rich, with great effects due to the use of oil and contrast depending on the areas
  • Strange elements: secondary plans, mirrors

30. Painting

  • Kinds of depiction:
    • Religious: martyrdoms, sufferance and blood
    • Mythological: generally developed with contemporary characters
    • Allegorical: virtues and sins portrayed as humans
    • Portraits: royal, bourgeois (doelen), beggars, handicapped
    • Customs: every days life
    • Historical: bear witness of historical events
    • Landscapes: never quiet sceneries
    • Still-life: food and vegetables, flowers, animals
    • Vanities or vanitas: remainders of the egalitarian role of death

31. Painting: Italy

  • Caravaggio
    • Very naturalist
    • Theologically incorrect
    • Enormous contrasts of light
    • Difficult compositions
    • Known as the creator of tenebrism
    • Works: Supper at Emmaus, the Death of the Virgin, Saint Mathews Conversion

32. Painting: Italy

  • Carracci
    • He received Caravaggios influence
    • Naturalism
    • Perfect and idealised world
    • His works are completely different from those of Caravaggio
    • Works: Cerasi Chapel

33. Painting: Flanders

  • Rubens
    • He was a complete artist
    • Gifted with organization and a sense for realism and idealism
    • He enjoyed harmonys enviable balance of opposites
    • Romantic but rooted in classical tradition
    • Works: The Three Graces, The Garden of Love, Catalina of Medicis Portrait

34. Painting: Flanders

  • Van Dyck
    • He was Rubens s student
    • In his works there in a languid melancholic mood
    • Portraits of the aristocracy
    • Works: Charles I
  • Jordaens
    • Specialized in genre and banquet scenes
    • Strong contrasts of light and shade
    • Realistic images
    • Works: The King Drinks

35. Painting: Netherlands

  • Rembrant
    • Thunderous use of light and shade
    • Dramatic figures filling the picture surface
    • Fluid and vigorous brushwork
    • He substituted the exact imitation of form by the suggestion of it: painting looked to be unfinished
    • Limited palette but able to depict colours
    • He worked in complex layers
    • Great care to the physical qualities of the medium
    • Works: The Nights Ronda, Saskia having a Bath, The Jew Bridegroom, The Philosopher

36. Painting: Netherlands

  • Hals
    • He brought life to groups
    • Portraits as a snapshot
    • Unconventional work for his moment
    • Quick depictions with a few touches of light
    • Works: The Gipsy Girl
  • Vermeer
    • Domestic interiors
    • Serene sense of compositional balance and spatial order
    • Mundane, domestic or recreational activities
    • He used the camera obscura to exaggerate perspective
    • Works: Girl with the Pearl Earring, View of Delft, the Procuress, The Geographer

37. Painting: France

  • Poussin
    • Founder of the classical school
    • Myths, essential subject and sensuality
    • Works: Et in Arcadia Ego
  • La Tour
    • Preocupation with the realistic rendering of light
    • Effects of chiaroscuro and diffusion of artificial illumination
    • Works: Marie Magdalene
  • Le Nain
    • Common life, peasants and poor people
    • Grave presences, not comic or gallant, neither picaresque or satirical
    • Works: Peasants Family

38. Painting: Spain

  • Zurbarn
    • He was a portrait painter
    • Main subjects: religious (saints, monastic orders members)
    • Austere, harsh, hard edged style
    • Still-lives
    • Works: Paintings of the Guadalupe Monastery, Sainte Casilde, Still-life with lemons

39. Painting: Spain

  • Velzquez
    • He painted any kind of subjects
    • He was Court Painter and travelled to Italy to buy art works and he knew classical masters works
    • Portraits: include royal family and nobility, some of them equestrian, but also normal people of the court or even beggars (Olivares, Juan de Pareja, Esopo, Meninas)
    • Religious paintings are treated as common subjects, with great importance given to daily life objects (Christ in Martha and Marys house)

40. Painting: Spain

    • Mythological work appear normally in a secondary plan or represented by normal people (Spinners, Drunks)
    • Historical scenes (Bredas Surrender)
    • Nudes (Venus of the mirror)
    • Landscapes (Villa Medicci)
    • Genre scenes: same importance given to the tools or to people (Old Woman Cooking Eggs, Sevillas Water-Seller)

41. Painting: Spain

    • Characteristics:
      • Great detail when wanted
      • Aerial perspective
      • Pre-Impressioniss (few matter and impression of unfinished work)
      • Special conception of the space (no divisions of it)
      • Resource to very baroque elements such as mirrors that create an illusionist space
      • Richness of colours

42. Painting: Spain

  • Murillo
    • His work is not strong but his images are convincing
    • Realism but a bit idealistic
    • He is reputed as children painter, works in which beggars and poor children are depicted
    • He created a model of Immaculate, moved by the wind and with a lot of putti
    • Works: Children Eating Fruit, Two Women at a Window, the Holy Family of the Bird, Immaculate

43. Rococo

  • French style for interior decoration
  • It developped mainly at the end of 1720
  • It was used in other countries as a French Style
  • Characteristics:
    • Galante: luxurious things
    • Contraste: asymmety
    • Chinoiserie: exotic character imitating Chinese arts

44. Rococo Architecture

  • It caught the public taste
  • Small and curious buildings
  • Elegant parlours, dainty sitting-rooms and boudoirs
  • Walls, ceiling, furniture and works of metal as decoration
  • Ensemble of sportive, fantastic and sculptured forms
  • Horizontal lines almost completely supressed
  • Shell-like curves
  • Walls covered by stucco
  • White and bright colours.

45. Rococo Sculpture

  • There is not a breaking with the former
  • The tune was set by courts and it is decorative
  • Staircases, columns with atlantes become common
  • Gardens and parks were adorned more than ever before with statues. These isolated and groups were placed on fountains
  • The social role of sculpture increased to show the power of dynasties and nobility, mainly when cities expanded

46. Rococo Sculpture

  • Taste for technical virtuosity, sheer brilliance of manner
  • Allegory was used because it had an elaborate system of symbols
  • Religion was a bit less used during the Enlightement
  • Portraits give importance to reallity with psychological quirks
  • Female portrait were less austere
  • Cult of great men
  • Increase of the number of equestrian statues
  • Funeral monuments

47. Rococo Sculpture

  • Bouchardon:
    • Clean forms, can and harmonious rhythms
    • Precursor of the Neoclassicism
    • Works: Louis XIV
  • Houdon:
    • Charming images a bit ambiguous
      • Works: Voltaire, La Frileuse
  • Pigalle: The Negro Paul, Tombe of Marshl Saxony
  • Falconet: Equestrian statue ofPeter the Great

48. Rococo Painting

  • Instead of portraying the moral depression of the time, they protrait high society and gallant festivals
  • Beautiful sensuality is masterly depicted through the colour
  • Conversations, rural pleasures, character as the Italian and French Commendians indicates the spirit of this art
  • Slim images, in unaffected pose, in rural sceneries and painted with the finest colours

49. Rococo Painting

  • France
    • Wateau
      • He depicted mankind as the most interesting natural element: affinity toward them
      • Elegant characters in vibrant colours
      • Works: Embarkation to Citera, Gilles
    • Fragonard
      • Rapid an spontaneous painter
      • He depicted the sense of human folly
      • Works: The Swing
    • Chardin
      • Master of the still life
      • Paintings in brown colours with mids, but loyal to reallity

50. Rococo Painting

  • England
    • Hogart
      • Caricature in his morality paintings
      • Fluent and vigorous brushwork
      • Works: Shrimp Girl
    • Gainsborough
      • Artist of the landscape and the portrait
      • Ability to regard all creatures with sympathy
      • Works: Landscape with Gypsies, Sunset

51. Rococo Painting

  • Italy
    • Tiepolo
      • Master of the decorative painting
      • He used the fresco
      • Works: Wurzburg Palace, Allegory of the Spanish Monarchy
    • Canaletto
      • Townscapes painter (vedute)
      • He apparently painted directly from nature
      • He used the camera obscura
      • Works: Architectural Capriccio, The Bucintoro Returning to the Molo on Ascension Day