Baroque Declarative Knowledge

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Comparison with classical, Monteverdi, Handel, Percell, Strozzi, Bach, Mouret, Vivaldi, Corelli, Scarlatti, Mozart, Haydn.Baroque opera, features of Baroque, oratorio, instruments and the suite, Baroque concerto.

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www.ibscrewed.org Baroque Declarative Knowledge Knowledge Driving beat Harpsichord Mass in B min - Bach Mass in F min - Bach The well tempered clavier - Bach Handel The four season - Vilvaldi Inventions and sinfonias - Bach Art of the fugue - Bach Musical offering - Bach English suites French suites Scarlatti Rameau Improv passacaglia Min dynamics Use of counter-point Bach Medium thickness in texture Lute Heavy use of choral music Males voices Toccata and fugue - bach Little fugue in g minor Brandenburg concerto - bach www.ibscrewed.org Comparison between Baroque and Classical Baroque Classical Melody Ornate, often asymmetrical melodies Dramatic leaps common Use of chromaticism for expressive purposes Simple melodies, often in four and eight-measure phrases Primarily stepwise motion Melodies more diatonic Rhythm Varied rhythms Strong underlying pulse Varied tempos More consistent rhythms Less insistent pulse More regular tempos Harmony Triadic, major/minor tonality Triadic, based on major/minor tonality Sound Basso continuo Wide variety of instrumental colors Terraced dynamics Harpsichord No basso continuo More homogenous orchestral color, winds play supporting role Use of gradual crescendos and diminuendos Piano Texture Imitative or homophonic More homophonic Form Binary and ternary forms Forms based on repetition (ritornello) Binary and ternary forms Based on return (sonata allegro) Baroque Composers Claudio Monteverdi - May 15, 1567, Cremona, Italy George Frideric Handel - February 23, 1685, Halle, Germany Henry Percell Barbara Strozzi J. S Bach Jean-Joseph Mouret Antonio Vivaldi Arcangelo Corelli Domenico Scarlatti Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart Franz Joseph Haydn www.ibscrewed.org Baroque Spirit The Baroque era (16001750) was a time of turbulent changes in a society that saw religious wars (Protestants vs. Catholics) as well as exploration and colonization of the New World. The era also saw the rise of middle- class culture, with music- making centered in the home; art often portrayed scenes of middle- class life. The Baroque marks the introduction of monody, which featured solo song with instrumental accompaniment; its goal was to recreate the musical- dramatic art of ancient Greece. Harmony was notated with figured bass, a shorthand that allowed the performer to improvise the chords. The bass part, or basso continuo, was often played by two instruments (harpsichord and cello, for example). The major- minor tonality system was established in the Baroque era, as was the equal temperament tuning system. While early Baroque music moved more freely, later Baroque style is characterized by regular rhythms and continuous melodic expansion. As musical instruments developed technically, the level of virtuosity and playing techniques rose. The union of text and music was expressed in the Baroque doctrine of the affections. www.ibscrewed.org Baroque Opera and its Components I. The Components of Opera 1. Opera: large-scale sung drama combining vocal and instrumental music, poetry and drama, acting and pantomime, scenery and costumes 1. recitative moves plot and action of opera forward 1. declamatory vocal style that imitates natural inflections of speech 2. recitative secco: accompanied by basso continuo 3. recitative accompagnato: accompanied by the orchestra 2. arias: highly emotional and lyrical songs 1. da capo arias are in ternary form (A-B-A) 3. duets, trios, quartets, and sung commentary by chorus may also be included 4. orchestra performs overture (introductory number), and sinfonias (interludes) 5. libretto: text or scripts of the opera 1. written by the librettist 6. early opera based on Greek mythology II. Monteverdi and Early Baroque Opera 1. Claudio Monteverdi (15671643) 1. born in Cremona, Italy 2. transitional composer: Renaissance-style madrigals, Baroque operas 3. new emotional intensity 2. The Coronation of Poppea 1. original music lost; this version by Pietro Francesco Cavalli (16021676) 2. Roman history: Nero plots to depose his wife, Ottavia, with his courtesan mistress, Poppea 3. public performance in Venice, no longer limited to palaces 3. Listening Guide 16: Monteverdi, The Coronation of Poppea (Lincoronazione di Poppea), Act III, Scene 7 (1642) 1. Poppea is led to the throne: fanfare-like, imitative polyphony 2. sinfonia interlude www.ibscrewed.org 3. love duet between Nero and Poppea, (A-B-B-A) structure 1. duet sung over ground bass 2. dissonant phrases: pi non peno (no more grieving), pi non moro (no more sorrow) III. The Spread of Opera 1. Opera in England 1. masques: vocal and instrumental music with poetry and dance 1. presented in homes of the rich and influential 2. Puritans forbade stage plays 2. Henry Purcell (16591695) 1. English composer, organist, and singer 2. wrote masques and operas for several venues 3. assimilated Italian and French styles 3. Dido and Aeneas 1. considered first great English opera 2. presented as a play set to music for a girls school in Chelsea 3. based on Virgils Aeneid 1. Aeneas is shipwrecked at Carthage, falls in love with the queen, Dido 2. Aeneas leaves Dido to continue his journey to found Rome 4. Listening Guide 17: Purcell, Dido and Aeneas, Act III, excerpts (1689) 1. Act III, opening: style of a hornpipe 2. recitative: Dido decides her fate is death 3. Didos Lament: sung over ground bass ostinato 1. descending bass line: symbolic of grief in Baroque music IV. Barbara Strozzi and the Baroque Aria 1. Barbara Strozzi (1619c. 1677) 1. professional composer, singer from Venice 2. prolific composer of secular and sacred music 3. successful in an age of a male-dominated society 2. Listening Guide 18: Amor dormiglione (Sleepyhead, Cupid!) (1651) 1. monody, solo soprano with harpsichord 2. light-hearted da capo aria (A-B-A) www.ibscrewed.org 3. sensitivity to the text 4. use of word painting PIECES HENRY PURCELL: Rondeau, from Abdelazar Henry Purcell: "Come Away, Fellow Sailors" from the opera Dido and Aeneas Henry Purcell: "Dido's Lament" from the opera Dido and Aeneas Barbara Strozzi: Amor dormiglione (Sleepyhead, Cupid!) Features of Baroque Singers Reoccurring themes Had small orchestra Has an overture Secullar and non-secular Recitative - secco and accompagnato Solo Dacapo aria Aria - tupcatto (rondo form) Duet Chorus Orchestral interludes Buffa - comic love, seria - serious Has interludes In seasons Originated in Itally Modelled on ancient Greek tragedies Had dancer, unlike oratorio Libretto - the text the opera is set on Purcell - was an English composer www.ibscrewed.org Baroque Cantata and Oratoria I. Bach and the Church Cantata 1. Cantata: multimovement work for soloists, chorus, and orchestra 1. part of the Lutheran church service 2. based on Lutheran chorale (hymn tune) 1. chorales written by Martin Luther 1. adapted from Gregorian chant, secular art music, popular tunes 2. sung in unison by congregation, later in four-part harmony 2. J. S. Bach (16851750) 1. German composer, organist 2. devout Lutheran: music must serve the glory of God 3. court and church positions: Weimar, Leipzig 4. prolific composer: suites, concertos, sonatas, keyboard music, Passions, cantatas 1. around two hundred cantatas survive 5. 19 children: four sons, leading composers 3. Listening Guide 19: Bach, Cantata No. 140, Wachet auf (Sleepers, Awake), excerpts (1731) 1. based on Gospel of Matthew: parable of the Wise and Foolish Virgins 2. chorale prelude in bar form (A-A-B) 3. seven movements: near palindrome form 1. chorale tune featured in three choral movements 2. 1st mvt.: grand chorale fantasia, majestic, marchlike: arrival of Christ 1. recurring instrumental sections (ritornellos) 3. 2nd mvt.: sparse recitative with basso continuo 4. 3rd mvt.: da capo form (A-B-A) love duet between the Soul (soprano) and Christ (bass) 5. 4th mvt.: central movement; chorale tune sung in unison by tenors 6. 7th mvt.: hymnlike setting with orchestra II. Handel and the Oratorio 1. Oratorio: large scale work for soloists, chorus, and orchestra www.ibscrewed.org 1. performed in concert setting without scenery or costumes 2. based on a biblical story 2. George Frideric Handel (16851759) 1. German composer 2. worked in Italy, Germany, England 3. held positions as conductor, director, producer 4. composed opera seria (serious Italian opera), English oratorios, orchestral suites, keyboard and chamber music 3. Messiah 1. composed in 24 days, premiered in Dublin 2. biblical verses set in three parts 1. Christmas section, prophecy of Christ 2. Easter section 3. redemption of the world through faith 4. Listening Guide 20: Handel, Messiah, Nos. 1, 1418, 44 (1742) 1. Part I, Overture: French style, slow dotted rhythms followed by fugue 2. Nos. 1416: contrasting recitative secco and recitative acompagnato 3. No. 17: four-part chorus with orchestra 4. No. 18: da capo soprano aria with instrumental ritornellos, (A-B-A') 5. Part II, No. 44: Hallelujah chorus closes Easter section 1. four-part chorus and orchestra 2. homorhythmic and imitative polyphonic textures PIECES: Bach, Contrapunctus 1, from The Art of Fugue Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No.1, I Bach, Jesu, Joy of Man's Desiring Bach, Sarabande, from Cello Suite No.2 Bach, Toccata in D minor Handel, Alla hornpipe, from Water Music "Hallelujah Chorus", from Messiah Handel, "O thou that tellest good tidings", from Messiah www.ibscrewed.org Oratorio Who: Handel When: Baroque What: The oratorio is a large-scale dramatic genre with a religious or biblical text performed by solo voices, chorus, and orchestra; it is not staged or costumed. The text for Messiah is drawn from a compilation of Old and New Testament verses. Large-scale dramatic genre with religious or biblical text Performed by solo voices, chorus, orchestra No staging or costumes Why: Special events Where: Europe Baroque Instruments and the Suite I. The Rise of Instrumental Music 1. Equal importance to vocal music 1. new instruments developed, improvements made to old ones 2. rise of virtuoso 1. Bach and Handel: organists 2. Corelli and Vivaldi: violinists 3. Scarlatti and Couperin: harpsichordists 3. music written specific to the instruments 2. Baroque Instruments 1. close to modern counterparts 2. string instruments: gut strings (made from animal intestines) 1. Cremona violin makers: Stradivari, Guarneri, Amati 3. recorder, flute, oboe, bassoon: all made of wood 4. additions to the orchestra: unvalved trumpet, French horn, timpani 5. organ and harpsichord: important keyboard instruments 3. The Baroque Suite 1. instrumental genre www.ibscrewed.org 2. group of short dances: all in same key 3. international influence: German, French, Spanish, English 1. overture, allemande, courante, sarabande, hornpipe, minuet, gigue 4. dances in binary (A-A-B-B) or ternary (A-B-A) form 5. suites written for solo instrument, chamber ensembles, and orchestra II. Handel and the Orchestral Suite 1. Water Music, and Music for the Royal Fireworks 1. Water Music performed on royal barge on Thames River 1. outdoor performance: no basso continuo 2. 22 movements 2. Listening Guide 21: Handel, Water Music, Suite in D major, excerpts (1717) 1. mvt. 1: ternary form (A-B-A') 1. fanfare-like trumpets, descending violin scales 2. mvt. 2: alla hornpipe, ternary form (A-B-A) 1. disjunct theme with decorative trills in strings and woodwinds 2. B section: reflective, minor key III. Music at the French Royal Court 1. Louis XIV and Louis XV ruled at palace of Versailles 1. Jean-Baptiste Lully (16321687): court composer of Louis XIV 1. French stage works: comedy-ballets, tragic operas 2. Jean-Joseph Mouret (16821738): court composer of Duke of Maine (son of Louis XIV) 2. Listening Guide 22: Mouret, Rondeau, from Suite de symphonies (1729) 1. rondeau form (A-B-A-C-A) 2. main theme: majestic fanfare 3. predominant high trumpet: frequent trills PIECES: Handel, Water Music, Alla hornpipe Mouret, Rondeau, from Suites de sumphonies Telemann, Tafelmusik www.ibscrewed.org Baroque Concerto I. Three Movement (fast-slow-fast) Instrumental Form 1. Solo concerto: solo instrument with accompanying instrumental group 2. Concerto grosso: two instrumental groups 1. solo group: concertino 2. accompanying group: tutti, or ripieno II. Antonio Vivaldi and the Solo Concerto 1. Antonio Vivaldi (16781741), 1. Venetian composer, violin virtuoso 2. ordained priest 3. music master at Conservatorio dellOspedale della Piet 4. traveled widely 5. composed over 500 concertos: 230 for solo violin, father of the concerto 2. The Four Seasons 1. four solo violin concertos accompanied by orchestra and basso continuo 2. program music: Italian sonnet 3. sounds musically pictoralized 3. Listening Guide 23: Vivaldi, Spring, from The Four Seasons (La primavera from Le quattro stagioni),Op. 8, No. 1 (1725) 1. mvt. 1: Allegro in E major 1. orchestral ritornello alternates with solo violin episodes 2. birds: trills and high running scales 3. storm: agitated repeated notes in low strings 2. mvt. 2: Largo in C-sharp minor 1. melancholy melody 2. upper strings only 3. mvt. 3: Allegro in E major, Rustic Dance 1. ritornello form 2. dotted rhythms, dancelike 3. drone represents bagpipes www.ibscrewed.org III. Bach and the Late Baroque Concerto 1. Six Brandenburg Concertos 1. composed at Cthen (171723) 2. named after Margrave Christian of Brandenburg 2. Listening Guide 24: Bach, Brandenburg Concerto No. 2 in F major, First Movement (171718) 1. concerto grosso: four solo instruments 1. violin, oboe, recorder, trumpet 2. ritornello form 3. seamless polyphonic texture 4. constant rhythmic drive PIECES: Vivaldi, The Four Seasons Other Baroque Instrumental Music I. Baroque Keyboard Instruments 1. Organ, harpsichord, and clavichord 1. organ: church and home 2. harpsichord: strings are plucked, tone not sustained 3. clavichord: favorite home instrument, soft, gentle tone 2. Chamber and solo instruments II. Sonata Types 1. Sonata da camera, chamber sonata 1. group of stylized dances 2. Sonata da chiesa, church sonata 1. serious in tone 2. four movements: slow-fast-slow-fast 3. Trio sonata 1. favored ensemble 2. two violins and basso continuo (four players) www.ibscrewed.org 4. Arcangelo Corelli (16531713) 1. Italian composer and violinst 2. emphasized lyricism over virtuosity 3. published four volumes of trio sonatas 5. Listening Guide 25: Corelli, Trio Sonata, Op. 3, No. 2 in D major, excerpts (1689) 1. mvt. 3: Adagio in B minor 1. imitative duet in violins 2. mvt. 4: Allegro in D major 1. binary form (A-A-B-B) 2. dancelike 3. imitation in three instruments III. Domenico Scarlatti and the Solo Sonata 1. Domenico Scarlatti (16851757) 1. Italian:...