Bahasa Remaja Colloquial Indonesian Slide 2 Colloquial Indonesian has its roots in Betawi Malay, a Malay based creole with an estimated 2,7 million speakers, spoken by the indigenous population of Jakarta or Batavia as it was known until 1942. Slide 3 changes In some cases initial /s/ might be dropped. This is, however, mainly limited to three words, i.e. sudah, sama, and saja that regularly become udah, ama, and aja in C.I. In proper Betawi Malay final /a/ also changes to /e/ rendering ama to ame, and aja to aje. This, however, is mainly restricted to 'true' Betawi Malay, and only occasionally found in C.I. Slide 4 Nggak .. Many loan words from Jakarta Malay such as nggak, kok and lho have already deeply penetrated the Indonesian language and are widely used in urban environments throughout Indonesia. Slide 5 Colloquial Indo Unfortunately most textbooks and texts available for students of Indonesian tend to completely ignore this kind of Indonesian that almost every visitor to Indonesia will hear when trying to verbally communicate with Indonesians Colloquial Indonesian(C.I.) differs only slightly from Standard Indonesian (S.I.) Slide 6 ada apa dong ? Other words such as banget, kangen or mendingan or the particles sih, deh, nih, tuh and dong are also becoming increasingly popular, and should be considered as an essential part of colloquial Indonesian that every student of the Indonesian language should be familiar with. Slide 7 different spelling The vowel /a/ in final closed syllables, however, almost always changes to /e/: seneng, pantes, bener, males, simpen, etc. The diphtong /au/ is usually contracted to /o/, sometimes followed by a glottal stop: kalau - kalo -> kalok, atau -> ato. mau -> mo; The diphthong /ai/ is typically replaced by /ae/ : main -> maen, often co-occurring with an attached glottal stop: kalau -> kalo -> kalok. Slide 8 g Standard IndoColloquial Indon a, e, i, o, u meng- mengambil ng- ngambil b mem- membantu m- mbantu c men- mencuci ny- nyuci d men- mendengar nge- ngedenger g meng- menggertak ng- nggertak h meng- menghargai nge- ngehargain j men- menjahit n- njahit k meng- mengejar ng- ngejar l me- melamar ng-, nge- nglamar, ngelantur p mem- memikir m- mikir r me- merasa nge- ngerasa s meny- menyangka ny- nyangka t men- meneruskan n- nerusin Slide 9 dh Part. (Jkt.) Emphatic particle stressing that s.t. is the way it is. Dong Part. (Jkt.) Particle asserting that interlocutor should already know or do what one is asserting: Of course, certainly. Mau dong! Yes, of course I want to! " Jadi kita ke Jakarta?" "Jadi dong!" Are we going to Jakarta?" "Of course we are!" Slide 10 Kan (derived from bukan) is used to form a tag question. When it follows the predicate it means "[so-and-so] is the case, isn't it?" in which the speaker assumes agreement with the statement and its implications. Kamu jadi ke Jakarta, kan? You're going to Jakarta, aren't you? .kan ? (bukan) Slide 11 Dong In questions dong can also be used when a previous answer did not match the expectation of the person asking the question. This person might then restate the question using dong: Tadi malam tidur di mana, dong? So, where then did you sleep?