Bahasa Indonesia-English Code Switching in Indonesian Personal Blogs
Ashika Prajnya Paramita 07/254559/SA/13958
Submitted for the partial fulfillment of The Linguistic Seminar Class Yogyakarta, January 2010
1. Introduction This paper aims at describing code switching found in Indonesian personal blogs run by several Indonesian bloggers. It will also analyze the types of code switching occurred and the reasons of the language switch done by the writers. This study is expected to give constructive contributions to the Sociolinguistics theory, particularly in the field of code switching. The findings of this study are expected to give useful insights to English Department students in order to understand the use of code switching done by Indonesian bloggers. This paper consists of four main parts, which are the introduction, data and methods, results, and conclusion. A bilingual person, as defined by Spolsky, is A person who has some functional ability in second language1. Multilingual is another terminology for the ability to speak more than one language. Wikipedia defines a multilingual person, in a broad definition, as a person who can communicate in more than one language, be it actively (through speaking, writing, or signing) or passively (through listening, reading, or perceiving)2. Although this ability may be different from one bilingual to another, they can change their choice of language to suit the situation, condition, or even the mood in order to communicate effectively. To put it shortly, bilinguals can choose what language they are going to use. Frequently, bilinguals even feel more comfortable discussing a particular subject in one language rather than another. Spolsky (1998) agrees, by saying that bilinguals like to shift their language for convenience. This might be the fundamental reason of why people code switch. According to Hoffman, the most general description of code switching is that it involves the alternate use of two languages or linguistic varieties within the same utterance or during the same conversation3. Code switching is also defined as the alternating use of two languages in the same stretch of
1 B. Spolsky. Sociolinguistics. Oxford University Press. Oxford: 1998. Page 45. 2 http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mutilingualism 3 C. Hoffman. An Introduction to Bilingualism. Longman. New York: 1991. Page 111.
discourse by a bilingual speaker4 and the ability on the part of bilinguals to alternate effortlessly between their two languages5. In simpler words, code switching is the ability to switch language quickly. Code switching is a dominant topic in the study of bilingualism and a phenomenon that generates a great deal of pointed discussion in the public domain6. Code switching significantly portrays bilinguals behavior, since it is exclusive to bilinguals. However, code switching is not an indicator of the bilinguals ability to separate their languages or a lack of competence in their languages. Code switching is more like an extra resource for communication available to bilinguals. It is difficult to definitively characterize code switching. First, its linguistic manifestation may extend from the insertion of single words to the alternation of languages for larger segments of discourse. Second, it is produced by bilinguals of differing degrees of proficiency who reside in various types of language contact settings, and as a consequence their CS patterns may not be uniform. Finally, it may be deployed for various of reasons7. The basic disctinction of code switching, according to Wikipedia.org are: Inter-sentential switching (outside the sentence or the clause level) Intra-sentential switching (within a sentence or a clause) Tag-switching (the switching of either a tag phrase or word, or both, from one language to another) Intra-word switching (within a word itself, such as at a morpheme boundary) Hoffman adds up another type of code switching, namely emblematic switching (it is tags or exclamation as an emblem of the bilingual character, establishing continuity with the previous speaker, involving a change of4 Barbara E. Bullock and Almeida Jacqueline Toribio. The Cambridge Handbook of Linguistic CodeSwitching. First Edition. Cambridge University Press. Cambride, 2009. 5 Barbara E. Bullock and Almeida Jacqueline Toribio, op.cit., page 1. 6 Ibid. 7 Barbara E. Bullock and Almeida Jacqueline Toribio, op.cit., page 2.
pronunciation; the switching occurs at the phonological level, involving a word within a sentence this form of code switching is uttered within a sentence involving nouns, adjectives, verbs, etc.)8. Also according to Hoffman (1991: 116), there are seven reasons for bilinguals to switch their languages. The seven reasons are as follows: 1) Talking about a particular topic 2) Quoting somebody else 3) Being emphatic about something 4) Interjection 5) Repetition used for clarification 6) Intention of clarifying the speech content for the interlocutor 7) Expressing group identity. Other than the reasons proposed Hoffman, other reasons are also suggested by Saville-Troike (1986: 69). They are: 1) Softening and strengthening request or command 2) Because of real lexical need, either if the speaker knows the desired expression in one language cannot be satisfactorily translated into second 3) To exclude other people when a comment is intended for only a limited audience. Even though the study of digital code switching on the internet may well inform us about linguistic aspects on contemporary societies, digital code switching has not been studied extensively. One of the potential fields through which code switching can be studied through the internet is weblog. Around the world, including Indonesia, blog is a new trend. These days, more and more people use blog for many different purposes. Primarily, a blog is a lot cheaper, easier to make, and easier to manage than a website. Among various kinds of blogs, is personal blog. Personal blogs contains peoples stories and thoughts, through which they communicate with their readers. The language used in personal blogs is unique because it demonstrates features of both oral and written speech it is informal, and it8 C. Hoffman, loc. cit., page 112.
contains a lot of features that are usually associated with spoken language. As a result of its informal nature, code switching can be found almost everywhere on weblogs. 2. Data and Methods A. Data This is a descriptive study aiming to describe code switching found in Indonesian personal blogs written by Indonesian bloggers. The reasons for using internet data, specifically weblog, are: Weblogs are easily accessible The background of the authors can be retrieved The texts consist of a very diverse nature The language used in personal blogs are very close to spoken language and highly similar to natural conversation. The data used in the paper are 15 written blog posts from various Indonesian bloggers. The data were collected by browsing the internet for Indonesian personal blogs that contain Bahasa Indonesia-English code switching. The data were then saved to be analyzed. B. Methods The main instrument in this research was the researcher herself as the key-human instrument. The data were collected by browsing the internet for blogs owned by Indonesian bloggers, selecting blog posts consisting Indonesian-English code switching and coding the selected code switching by grouping them to help make easier analysis. The blog posts were typed in three kinds of forms: regular for Indonesian language, bold-italic for the English or Indonesian-English code switching that was analyzed, and italic for English code switching that was not analyzed. The data were analyzed by classifying any forms of code switching based on the types and finding out the reasons of the use of the code switching based on the data. The first step of the research methodology was converting the
samples format into texts. Taking personal blogs as research samples naturally would bring about several problems like irregular text formatting and typography. Therefore, the next thing to do after converting was fixing the text format. The typography was not changed in order to keep the text itself original. The third step was to code the text consisting code switching by italicizing every code switching and later make the text that were not going to be analyzed bold. The code switching data were then grouped according to the five types of code switching mention in the previous chapter to be analyzed. 3. Results The collected and analyzed data are presented in two tables. Table 4.1 below shows that the type of Bahasa Indonesia English code switching occurred the most in Indonesian personal blogs is the intra-sentential switching (43.26%). Code switching of the inter-sentential switching are in the second position (28.37%), and tag switching in the fourth position (16.74%). The last type of code switching that is used the least by Indonesian bloggers are emblematic switching (6.51%). Table 3.1 The frequency of the occurrences of the types of code switching in Indonesia personal blogs No 1 2 3 4 5 TOTAL Types Inter-sentential Switching Intra-sentential Switching Intra-word Switching Tag Switching Emblematic Switching Frequency 61 93 11 36 14 215 43.26 5.12 16.74 6.51 100 Presentages 28.37
Table 3.2 The frequency of the occurrences of the reasons of code switching in Indonesian personal blogs done by Indonesian bloggers No 1 Reasons Talking about a particular topic Love Emotions 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 TOTAL Quoting somebody else Being emphatic about something Interjection Repetition used for clarification Intention of clarifying the speech content for the interlocutor Expressing group identity Softening and strengthening meanings, requests, and commands Inserting a lexical need Inserting sentence fillers or sentence connectors Particular discursive aims (style