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Three Dimensional Design: Painted Plaster Masks Painted Plaster Masks 3d Design -- Grades 9 through 12 -- Collins Hill High School 1

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Three Dimensional Design: Painted Plaster Masks

Painted Plaster Masks3d Design -- Grades 9 through 12 -- Collins Hill High School

Unit: Painted Plaster MasksClass: 3-Dimensional Design Teacher: Crissy ClouseGrades: 9th through 12th

Unit Overview

This unit it catered to a three dimensional design class for students from ninth to twelfth grades. Students will be introduced to the use of masks in different cultures from around the world. They will be introduced to the religious and spiritual significance a mask can have for a group of people: like how they were used to link the spirit world to the wearer of the mask, how they were used to scare off evil spirits of omens and how they were used as totems for religious figures. The aim is for students to see the importance of how masks can make a message, evoke a feeling, or help alleviate a worry. First, students will make a mask from clay. Then, they will wrap the clay with plaster strips. Once the plaster has hardened, the student will have his or her blank mask, and an empty canvas on which to add motifs and designs that will help strengthen the message stated in the facial expression of the mask.

Rationale This unit has two goals. First, the unit will introduce students to a wealth of cultural art history as they explore how people from around the world have used masks conceptually and aesthetically. This will inform students that art can be used for therapeutic reasons. They will learn that art can be used as a shield; a creative means of metabolizing fears, insecurities and passions. Lastly, they will gain multiple technical skills as they create their mask first in clay, then use plaster gauze, and then fine-tune two-dimensional design skills as they paint and decorate their masks.

Stage OneEstablished Goals

VAHSVACU.1 Articulates ideas and universal themes from diverse cultures of the past and present.VAHSVACU.2 Demonstrates an understanding of how art history impacts the creative process of art making. VAHSVAPR.5 Creates artwork reflecting a range of concepts, ideas, and subject matter.VAHSSCPR.2 Engages in an array of sculpture processes, techniques, and aesthetic stances.VAHSSCPR.4 Keeps a visual/verbal sketchbook journal, consistently throughout the course, to collect, develop, and preserve ideas in order to produce works of art around themes of personal meaning.VAHSSCAR.2 Critiques sculptures of others individually and in group settings.

Understandings

Students will understand the significance of masks from cultures around the world. They will see how people have used them in multiple ways, like in theater, as a communicator for the spirit world, or to scare away evil spirits Students will understand the significance of making art, in this case masks, as an emotional response

Essential Questions

How can I make a mask that has three-dimensionality while also having aesthetically appealing design? How can I make a mask that is an extension of my personality?

Other Questions in Focus

How can I draw or create a facial expression that shows an emotion? How can I turn my two-dimensional drawing into a three-dimensional mask? How can I make my mask appear three-dimensional in clay? How can I use two different types of lines as well as a color scheme in creating a design on my mask that utilizes a principal of design?

Before this Unit, Students will Need to KnowAs a Result of this Unit, Students will be Able to

Basic facial proportions Basic portrayal of emotions in drawings Basic drawing techniques Color Schemes Translate a two-dimensional drawing into a three-dimensional form Use line variance and color schemes to create an interesting design Use slip, scoring, and coiling methods to build up a clay body Follow directions to make a plaster mask over the initial clay body that will be removed effectively

Stage TwoPerformance Tasks

Lesson OneAfter a Powerpoint, students will be assessed on their attentiveness and understanding of the presentation. Students will be given three brief questions and a prompt to draw three different masks with different facial expressions, and to write a brief summary of each mask as to why its expression is so. Questions include: What roles do masks play in different cultures? Give two examples. What do you want your mask to do? To tell a story? To scare something away? To communicate something in a way you cant? What can you do to the appearance of your mask to make it do what you want it to do?

Lesson TwoStudents will be given a worksheet to complete. This worksheet will be used as planning material but will be used to assess the students planning techniques as they begin creating their masks. The worksheet with cover: What emotion is my mask going to have? What shape will my mask be? Is my mask going to be a human, animal or combination? What sort of design will my mask have? What colors will be used on my mask? What colors will I use for my mask? Worksheet will be graded on thoroughness and thoughtfulness.

Lesson ThreeStudents will use a self-assessment check list as they begin to build their clay masks. Students will ask themselves these questions: Is my mask free of undercuts? Are my wrinkles or lines wide enough? Is the profile of my mask showing enough depth? Can I see what its brow ridge, nose, cheeks, and chin? Did I slip and score my coils? Checklist: See Page

Lesson FourAs students are removing their masks, they will self assess the width, strength, and neatness of their plaster masks. The results of their self assessment will lead to further performance tasks (adding more layers of plaster, smoothing edges).

Lesson FiveStudents will be given a worksheet to fill out as they begin to paint their plaster mask. The worksheet will be part self-assessment and part Principal of Design review. It will ask students: What two types of lines are used in my painted design? What colors and color schemes are used? Would my mask be considered messy? Am I using the right size paint brush? What Principal of Design is used (give definition and where it was used in the mask).

Lesson SixStudents will be assessed on retention of information on facial proportion, color theory, elements of art, and principals of design in a teacher-guided critique.

Criteria

Final Rubric: Page 20

Learning Activities

Lesson OneStudents will be introduced to the use of masks throughout all cultures and regions of the world. Through the use of an image-rich Powerpoint, students will be introduced to many examples of masks, as well as brief information about how they were used. Some examples of uses are to scare evil spirits away, to be used as communicators to the spirit world, and to represent a dead ancestor. After the powerpoint, the students will answer three teacher-directed reflections about what they learned. They will then practice drawing three to four mock-up masks, each showing a different facial expression. Students will need to include a short two-three sentence explanation of why the mask is showing that emotion and what that mask would be used for.

MaterialsPowerpoint attached in CD Handout: Pages 12 and 13

Lesson TwoStudents will choose one mask/emotion from the previous lesson to elaborate on. First, students will be given an exercise in facial proportions. After they get the facial proportion worksheet, students will take turns putting felt eyes, nose, and mouth on a felt oval (head). This will be done at the front of the room. Students will get to choose from a wide variety of different types of eyes, noses, mouths and ears, giving them inspiration for funky designs for their masks. Then, students will be given 15-20 minutes to practice drawing the frontal and side portrait of their tablemates. This will give students the opportunity to learn how far some noses, chins, lips, foreheads and cheeks pop out. Next, students will draw their mask from the front and then from the side, to understand the depth of the mask and to plan before they begin making their mask from clay. Masks must have proper human facial proportions. They are free to add to the face if they wish, even meld an animal with the human face, but they must use proper facial proportions, lengths, and widths. That means their mask must be around 9 inches long and five inches wide.

MaterialsPaper (11 in x 18 in, folded in half)Pencil, eraserHandout: Page 14

Lesson ThreeTeacher will introduce clay to the students. Teacher will do a 10 minute demo. The students will stand around her table and watch as she applies wet clay together. She will demonstrate coil building, slip and scoring, additive and subtractive techniques. Students will be given 40 minutes to start exploring with clay as they make their own mask. Each student will be given a 1/2 inch clay slab. They will be instructed to wad up a sheet or two of newspaper and put it under their slab, draping their slab over it. This will start their masks off with a convex shape. They will then use the additive process as they apply clay onto their slab, beginning to build up their mask. As they build up their mask, students will need to keep in mind a couple of parameters: There cannot be undercuts. If there is an undercut, the plaster will not be able to come off. The profile of the mask will need to have prominent definition. The mask should not be flat. Students will wrap the masks with wrung-out damp paper towels every night and keep the mask in a sealed box, until before they wrap them in plaster. Students will be given a handout which will have all vocabulary and tools, for students reference. The sheet will also have a check list, which will let students self-asses as they build their masks.

MaterialsHandOut: Pages 15 and 16ClaySlipClay Tools (scoring tool, rib tool, ribbon tool)NewspaperPaper towels

Lesson FourDuring this lesson, the student will wrap their mask with plaster gauze. Once the clay masks are bone-dry, students will cover every inch of the tops and sides of the clay with petroleum jelly. This will ensure the dried plaster will come off the clay easily. The clay will turn a darker color once it is covered in the jelly. Students will need strips of plaster gauze, about one inch by two inches in size. They will also have a cup of cold water in front of them. First, students will dip the plaster gauze strips into the cold water. They will let them hover over the water for about two second to let any excess water drip off, but will not wring the gauze out. Once the student puts the strips on the mask, they will rub them down to make sure and holes of the gauze are covered over with the plaster. They will do this until the mask is wrapped with three layers, all pin-holes are covered, and mask is fully wrapped in gauze. Warn students not to wrap all the way around the mask; they should not reach to the back. Once the plaster masks dry (overnight, uncovered), the plaster will take on a brighter white color and chalky surface texture. To remove the plaster from the clay, students will use a knife or plastic fork, dipped in petroleum jelly. They will maneuver the knife or fork between the plaster and clay until they are able to pop the plaster off. Students may need to cut the plaster if it got wrapped around the clay to make it easier to take off. After the masks are removed, students will wrap wet plaster gauze over the edges to keep them smooth.

MaterialsPetroleum Jelly Plastic cups for cold waterPlaster gauze cut in 1 by 2 stripsPlastic forks, knivesHandout: Page 18

Lesson FiveOnce mask is dry and remove, students will sand down their masks to ensure they have a smooth surface to paint on. Before they get started on their mask, they will use colored pencils, and markers to create a design on paper which they will paint on their mask. After they have their plans, they will draw the design on the mask in the pattern which they will paint. Students will then use acrylic paint and varying sizes of brushes to paint the design on their masks. The masks must use at least one color scheme within their masks. This includes complementary, secondary, primary, cool, warm, etc. schemes. Their designs also must have two different types of lines. This means swirly, thin, thick, straight, etc. lines. Students must focus on neatness, making sure their paint goes on opaque and their edges are neat.

MaterialsPalletsAcrylic paintPain brushesHandout: Page 19

Lesson SixOn the last day of this unit, students will participate in small group and large class critiques. First, students will discuss with the students at their tables about which mask is the best. The requirements include: Is the mask neat? Does the mask have effective use of color? Does the mask have effective use of line? What elements have been used? What principals are used effectively? Which mask has harmony? Which mask has good balance? Is there symmetrical or asymmetrical balance? Students will be given twenty minutes to discuss amongst eachother as they decide these questions. Throughout this time, teacher will be walking around the room, asking these questions, ensuring students stay on tasks and are assessing the masks as an artist. Once each table has decided on the mask they want to discuss, each table will come to the front of the room. They will spend a minute or two in front of the class talking about their mask: What inspired their mask. Why they used the colors, designs, and lines they did. Then the class must say two things that really work for the mask. Students will be warned to stay away from simple descriptors: cool, awesome, pretty, sweet, etc. Instead they should say something technical: the colors work well with the lines, the yellow really makes the purple stand out, etc. Then, students should add one thing that could be improved on, or a constructive criticism. Again, these recommendations need to stay constructive, and shouldnt be mean, or simple (stay away from its ugly/stupid/crappy, etc.)

Vocabulary

(Lesson Three) 1. Additive Process: A sculpture process where material is applied to build up the final form2. Armature: Supporting skeletal structure that prevents a sculpture from collapsing during construction3. Asymmetrical Balance: Both sides of a design are not identical4. Bisqueware: A clay work that has been fired in the kiln once5. Bone Dry: Stage at which clay has lost all moisture, is light colored and dusty feeling6. Coil: A method of hand-building that uses snakelike rolls of clay and smoothing over the joints to make the wall of the clay sculpture appear smooth7. Complementary: Color scheme that uses hues that are across from each other on the color wheel 8. Contrast: Design principle that refers to differences in value, colors and textures in order to achieve emphasis9. Greenware: Any unfired clay work; a clay work that has not been baked in the kiln10. Hand-Building: The artist uses his or her hands instead of a potters wheel to make artwork with clay11. Leather Hard: Stage at which clay is stiff but still moist and can be carved without running the risk of collapsing the form12. Monochromatic: Color scheme that uses a hue plus its tints (lights) and shades (darks)13. Pattern: The repeating of a motif, shape, line, color in a recognizable organization14. Score: When combining to pieces of clay, scoring is scratching the surface of the clay with a knife or similar clay tool15. Slip: Creamy wet mixture of clay and water that is used as glue to keep two pieces of clay together16. Slab: A slice of clay 17. Subtractive Process: The process of removing material to achieve the final form; carving18. Symmetrical Balance: Both sides of a design appear to be identical

Resources

1. http://www.masksoftheworld.com/ A website full of images and information about masks from all around the world.

Student Examples

Samantha C.Collins Hill High School

Blake N.Collins Hill High School

Jennifer N.Collins Hill High School

Ricardo Q.Collins Hill High School

Lesson OneToday, I introduced the class to the use of masks in art history. Most every cultures use masks in different ways. Masks have traditionally been used to bridge between the outer spirit world and the inner person. They connected us with things we couldnt explain, like life, death, and natural phenomena. Here are some examples of masks used in different culturesAfrican Dan Mask

These masks were generally used as protectors. They were also used as communicators for the spirit world. When the person wore the mask, he or she spoke the language of the spiritworld Ancient Greek Theater Masks

These masks were sometimes used so men could play the roles of women. They also gave the audience an opportunity to judge the character based on his or her actions, not looks.

Incan Sun Masks

AnswerWhat roles do masks play in different cultures? Give two examples. What do you want your mask to do? To tell a story? To scare something away? To communicate something in a way you cant? What can you do to the appearance of your mask to make it do what you want it to do? The Incas most powerful god was the sun god. They used their masks to ask their god for help with their crops or weather during religious ceremoniesLesson OneName: _____ Period:1. What roles do masks play in different cultures? Give two examples.

2. What do you want your mask to do? To tell a story? To scare something away? To communicate something in a way you cant?

3. What can you do to the appearance of your mask to make it do what you want it to do?

Lesson TwoNow is the time to plan your mask! Ask yourself these questions What emotion is my mask going to have?________________________________________________ What shape is my mask going to be? What kind of designs is going to be on my mask?

Is my mask going to be an animal, a human, or a combination? ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ What colors will I want to use for my mask? ______________________________________________________________________________ What is inspiring my mask? ____________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Lesson ThreeToday is an introduction to clay! I went over basic hand-building techniques. You can use the vocabulary and tool list attached to help you through it. Some things to keep in mind: We will be covering our clay masks in plaster gauze. If you have parts that stand out really far, you can use wire to make an armature first, then wrap those parts with the plaster. You need to make sure your plaster will pop off easily. That means you cant put plaster in an undercut. An undercut is a cut that is goes under the clay. Think about the plaster gauze as a hat. It should be able to pop off relatively easily from the clay. If the plaster is under the clay in any way, it will get stuck (see drawing below for help with this) The plaster gauze will be laid on in several layers. Do not make a crease or dent that is thicker than the width of about three poster boards (use tool provided) If you have something popping out more than one inch high, use coils

Lesson Three- Clay Mask Checklist____ Is my mask free of undercuts?____ Are my wrinkles or lines wide enough? (Use tool)____ Is the profile of my mask showing enough depth? Can you tell what is its brow ridge, nose, and lips? ___ Did I slip and score my coils?

Clay VocabularyBuilding your Mask19. Additive Process: A sculpture process where material is applied to build up the final form20. Armature: Supporting skeletal structure that prevents a sculpture from collapsing during construction21. Coil: A method of hand-building that uses snakelike rolls of clay and smoothing over the joints to make the wall of the clay sculpture appear smooth22. Hand-Building: The artist uses his or her hands instead of a potters wheel to make artwork with clay23. Score: When combining to pieces of clay, scoring is scratching the surface of the clay with a knife or similar clay tool24. Slip: Creamy wet mixture of clay and water that is used as glue to keep two pieces of clay together25. Slab: A slice of clay 26. Subtractive Process: The process of removing material to achieve the final form; carving

Stages of Dryness 1. Bisqueware: A clay work that has been fired in the kiln once2. Bone Dry: Stage at which clay has lost all moisture, is light colored and dusty feeling3. Greenware: Any unfired clay work; a clay work that has not been baked in the kiln4. Leather Hard: Stage at which clay is stiff but still moist and can be carved without running the risk of collapsing the form

Decorating your Mask1. Pattern: The repeating of a motif, shape, line, color in a recognizable organization2. Contrast: Design principle that refers to differences in value, colors and textures in order to achieve emphasis3. Symmetrical Balance: Both sides of a design appear to be identical4. Asymmetrical Balance: Both sides of a design are not identical5. Monochromatic: Color scheme that uses a hue plus its tints (lights) and shades (darks)6. Complementary: Color scheme that uses hues that are across from each other on the color wheel

Student Examples William M. Esther Y. Collins Hill High School Collins Hill High School

Ricardo Q.Darrion G. Collins Hill High School Collins Hill High SchoolLesson FourToday, we learned how to wrap our clay masks with plaster gauze.The tools you will need: Place mats Vaseline Your clay mask Plaster gauze strips Cup of cold water The steps are as follows: 1. Cover your clay mask in Vaseline. Make sure every inch is covered. You will be able to tell the mask is covered in Vaseline when the color of the clay turns from light brown to darker brown. 2. Dip your plaster gauze strips in a cup of cold water. Do not wring them out spend just about 3 seconds to let the excess water drip off. 3. Lay the gauze onto your clay mask. Use your finger to rub and smooth down the gauze.4. Put down two or three layers to make sure there are no pin-prick holes.

Name: ___________________________________Painted Mask Requirements

Ask Yourself These Questions1. Does my mask have two examples of lines? Draw those examples:

2. What color scheme(s) is/are represented in my mask? Give colors and the scheme (Example: ______________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ 3. Would my mask be considered messy? Circle one: YES NO4. Did I use the right size brush to paint my decorations? Circle one: YESNO5. What Principle of Design is used? (Example: Pattern, Harmony, Balance, Rhythm, Emphasis, Repetition, Contrast, Unity) a. Define the Principle(s) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ b. Give an example of where a principle took place. (example: The dark lines on the cheek contrasts with the light lines on the lips) ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

Three Dimensional Design. Collins Hill Highschool. C. Clouse

GradeProject: Plaster/Painted MasksName: _____________________________________________________Period: _________Unsatisfactory

6.5-7 pointsEmerging

7.5-8 pointsProficient

8.5-9 pointsAdvanced

9.5-10 points

Three Dimensional Definition and DesignWork has little or no three dimensional definition, design principles are hardly touched on Work has attempted three dimensional definition, principles of design are included in a very basic wayWork has three dimensional definition, understanding of principles of design are evidentWork has exceeded expectation in definition, design, and decoration

Painted DesignStudent has only met one of the two design requirements and design is not well thought out Student has met only one of the two design requirements but design is well thought outStudent has met both design requirements and shows exploration of design and evidence of risk-takingWork has met both design requirements and has exceeded normal expectations in design planning and conceptualization

Craftmanship, Skill, Technical AbilityWork shows poor craftsmanship, lack of effort and/or exploration of assigned media/projectWork shows very average craftsmanship and understanding of techniques and/or requirements for projectWork demonstrates average understanding of craftsmanship, techniques, technical ability and requirementsWork is outstanding and expertly finished with attention focused on craftsmanship, techniques, requirements and superb technical ability

Interpretation/ Criteria/ (Completeness-Effort)Work shows little or no evidence of original thought process or personalityWork lacks sincere originality or personal reflection. Imitates existing examples or thoughtsWork demonstrates a real effort to be creative and shows the beginning of a unique personal voiceWork demonstrates a unique level of thought and voice. Originality and personal reflection are obvious

Notes: ________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________Presentation Tool

Each lesson has its own folder on the Presentation board. If students are absent or need a reminder of the previous days lesson, they are free to take the hand out (attached)

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