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  • Aviation Maintenance Technician Handbook AirframeVolume 22012

    FAA-H-8083-31

    Aviation Supplies & Academics, Inc.7005 132nd Place SENewcastle, Washington 98059-3153www.asa2fly.com

    2012 Aviation Supplies & Academics, Inc.This electronic publication is comprised of the same content as the Federal Aviation Administrations official release of this same title. ASA does not claim copyright on any material published herein that was taken from United States government sources. Bookmarks and hyperlinks have been incorporated throughout to facilitate ease of use for this electronic version. All rights reserved. No part of this electronic file may be reproduced, transmitted, shared, distributed or resold without written permission from the publisher.

    ASA-8083-31V2-PD978-1-56027-953-2

  • iii

    Volume 1Preface.....................................................................v

    Acknowledgments ................................................vii

    Table of Contents ................................................xiii

    Chapter 1Aircraft Structures ...............................................1-1

    Chapter 2Aerodynamics, Aircraft Assembly, and Rigging .................................................................2-1

    Chapter 3Aircraft Fabric Covering .....................................3-1

    Chapter 4Aircraft Metal Structural Repair .........................4-1

    Chapter 5Aircraft Welding ...................................................5-1

    Chapter 6Aircraft Wood ......................................................6-1

    Chapter 7Advanced Composite Materials .........................7-1

    Chapter 8Aircraft Painting and Finishing ..........................8-1

    Chapter 9Aircraft Electrical System ...................................9-1

    Glossary ..............................................................G-1

    Index ......................................................................I-1

    Volume 2Chapter 10Aircraft Instrument ...........................................10-1

    Chapter 11Communication and Navigation.......................11-1

    Chapter 12Hydraulic and Pneumatic .................................12-1

    Chapter 13Aircraft Landing ................................................13-1

    Chapter 14Aircraft Fuel System..........................................14-1

    Chapter 15Ice and Rain Protection.....................................15-1

    Chapter 16Cabin Environmental ........................................16-1

    Chapter 17Fire Protection Systems ...................................17-1

    Glossary ..............................................................G-1

    Index ......................................................................I-1

    Volume Contents

  • xiii

    Volume Contents ...................................................iii

    Preface.....................................................................v

    Acknowledgments ................................................vii

    Table of Contents ................................................xiii

    Chapter 10Aircraft Instrument Systems ............................10-1Introduction ..................................................................10-1Classifying Instruments ...............................................10-3

    Flight Instruments ....................................................10-3Engine Instruments ...................................................10-3Navigation Instruments ............................................10-4

    Pressure Measuring Instruments ..................................10-5Types of Pressure .....................................................10-7Pressure Instruments.................................................10-8

    Engine Oil Pressure ..............................................10-8Manifold Pressure .................................................10-9Engine Pressure Ratio (EPR) ................................10-9Fuel Pressure .......................................................10-10Hydraulic Pressure ..............................................10-10Vacuum Pressure ................................................10-11Pressure Switches ...............................................10-11

    Pitot-Static Systems ...............................................10-12Pitot Tubes and Static Vents ...............................10-12Air Data Computers (ADC) and Digital Air Data Computers (DADC) ...................................10-14

    Pitot-Static Pressure-Sensing Flight Instruments ...10-16Altimeters and Altitude .......................................10-16Vertical Speed Indicator .....................................10-22Airspeed Indicators .............................................10-24

    Remote Sensing and Indication .................................10-26Synchro-Type Remote-Indicating Instruments .....10-26

    DC Selsyn Systems .............................................10-26AC Synchro Systems ..........................................10-28Remote Indicating Fuel and Oil Pressure Gauges ................................................................10-28

    Mechanical Movement Indicators ..............................10-29Tachometers ...........................................................10-29

    Mechanical Tachometers ....................................10-29Electric Tachometers ..........................................10-30

    Synchroscope..........................................................10-32Accelerometers .......................................................10-32Stall Warning and Angle of Attack (AOA)Indicators ................................................................10-34

    Temperature Measuring Instruments .........................10-35Non-Electric Temperature Indicators .....................10-36Electrical Temperature Measuring Indication ........10-36

    Electrical Resistance Thermometer ....................10-36Ratiometer Electrical Resistance Thermometers .....................................................10-38

    Thermocouple Temperature Indicators ..................10-38Turbine Gas Temperature Indicating Systems ...10-39

    Total Air Temperature Measurement .....................10-42Direction Indicating Instruments ...............................10-43

    Magnetic Compass .................................................10-43Vertical Magnetic Compass ...................................10-45Remote Indicating Compass ...................................10-45Remote Indicating Slaved Gyro Compass (Flux Gate Compass) .......................................................10-45Solid State Magnetometers .....................................10-46

    Sources of Power for Gyroscopic Instruments ..........10-46Vacuum Systems ....................................................10-48

    Venturi Tube Systems .........................................10-48Engine-Driven Vacuum Pump ............................10-48Typical Pump-Driven System .............................10-49Twin-Engine Aircraft Vacuum System Operation ............................................................10-50

    Pressure-Driven Gyroscopic Instrument Systems ..10-51Electrically-Driven Gyroscopic Instrument Systems ...................................................................10-51

    Principles of Gyroscopic Instruments ........................10-52Mechanical Gyros...................................................10-52Solid State Gyros and Related Systems .................10-54

    Ring Laser Gyros (RLG) ....................................10-54

    Table of Contents

  • xiv

    Microelectromechanical Based Attitude and Directional Systems ............................................10-55Other Attitude and Directional Systems .............10-55

    Common Gyroscopic Instruments .............................10-56Vacuum-Driven Attitude Gyros .............................10-56Electric Attitude Indicators ....................................10-57Gyroscopic Direction Indicator or Directional Gyro (DG) ..............................................................10-58Turn Coordinators ..................................................10-58Turn-and-Slip Indicator .........................................10-58

    Autopilot Systems ......................................................10-60Basis for Autopilot Operation ................................10-60

    Autopilot Components ...............................................10-61Sensing Elements ...................................................10-61Computer and Amplifier .........................................10-61Output Elements .....................................................10-61Command Elements ...............................................10-63Feedback or Follow-up Element ............................10-63Autopilot Functions ................................................10-64Yaw Dampening .....................................................10-65

    Automatic Flight Control System (AFCS) ................10-65Flight Director Systems .............................................10-65Electronic Instruments ...............................................10-67

    Electronic Attitude Director Indicator (EADI) ......10-67Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicators (EHSI) ...................................................10-68

    Electronic Flight Information Systems ......................10-68Electronic Flight Instrument System (EFIS) ..........10-70Electronic Centralized Aircraft Monitor (ECAM) ..................................................................10-71Engine Indicating and Crew Alerting System (EICAS) .....................................................10-72

    Flight Management System (FMS) ............................10-73War