Austerlitz Memorial NAPOLEON.nov2011 NoFPL

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    The Napoleonic Epic:

    Victim of an inferior strategy?

    A case study contrasting Heroic

    vs Fair Leadership

    Ludo Van der Heyden

    Mubadala Chaired Professor in Corporate Governance and Strategy

    Abu Dhabi, Fontainebleau and Singapore

    Austerlitz Memorial Lecture

    Fontainebleau, November 30th 2011

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    AusterlitzDec 2nd, 18052

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    Outline of our discussion

    3

    1. A quick review in 25 paintings

    2. Austerlitz Dec 2nd, 1805: What, How, Why &Outcomes

    3. Bonapartes leadership as general

    4. Napoleons leadership as CEO & Chairman

    5. Bonaparte, the innovator of modern militarystrategy

    6. Key hypothesis for discussion

    7. Conclusion: heroc vs fair leadership

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    Sept 7th 1793-Dec 19th 1793First noteworthy accomplishement: contributing to driving the English out

    of Toulon with an astute artillery maneuver

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    1517 November 1796The Battle at the Arcole Bridge

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    1798-1801The Egyptian Campaign

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    Nov 10th 1799The Coup: Brumaire

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    November 10th 1799The premier consul

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    June 14th 1800Taking the Reserve Army over the Alps to the victory at Marengo

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    May 18th1804The Coronation of the Emperor Napoleon I in Notre Dame by Pius VII

    Painting by Jacques-Louis DAVID (1748-1825)10

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    The battle of Austerlitz - Dec 2nd 1805A daring plan & greatest day ever of Frenchs Army Napoleon elected Emperor/CEO of the Year 1805

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    Iena - October, 13th 1806Napoleon defeats the rear guard of the Prussian Army at Iena, but the hero

    of the day is Davout, who receives the title Duke of Auerstadt

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    1806Davout routing the Prussian Army

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    1807The battle of Eylau

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    Friedland - June 14th 1807Forcing the Russians to sign the Piece of Tilsitt

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    1808 - 1809Invading Spain to force the Portugese to stop trading with the Brits

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    1809Near disaster at Aspern Essling (followed by victory at Wagram)

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    April 2nd 1810Marriage with Marie Louise

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    1812Napoleons invasion of Russia: Punishing the Russians for trading with the Brits

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    INVASION ROUTE

    RETREAT ROUTETEMPERATURES

    KOVNO VILNA

    SMORGONI

    BERESINA

    ORSHA

    VITEBSK

    SMOLENSK

    VIASMA

    BORODINO

    MOSCOW

    GZATSK

    MALOYAROSLAVETS

    -30C

    -20C

    -10C

    0C

    Original map by Edward TufteDigital Rendering by Emin Saglamer

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    1812: inconclusive victory at Borodina (Moskowa)

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    1813: Disastrous withdrawal from Leipzig... after indecisive victories at Bautzen, Dresden and Ltzen

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    1814: Campaign in FranceStill a great general against much superior numbers

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    April 20 1814Napoleon's Adieu to the Imperial Guard in Fontainebleau following

    Marmonts surrender in front of Paris

    Painting by Antoine Alphonse Montfort23

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    May 4th 1814: King of ElbaIle dElbe

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    March 20th 1815Return of Ile dElbe

    Painting by K. Steuben25

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    June 18th 1815Waterloo Battle

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    1815-1821 : Prisoner of the Allies on Saint Helne

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    May 5 1821Napoleons death : Poisoned by his entourage (?)

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    Outline of our discussion

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    1. A quick review in 25 paintings

    2. Austerlitz Dec 2nd, 1805: What, How, Why &Outcomes

    3. Bonapartes leadership as general

    4. Napoleons leadership as CEO & Chairman

    5. Bonaparte, the innovator of modern militarystrategy

    6. Key hypothesis for discussion

    7. Conclusion: heroc vs fair leadership

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    What happened at Austerlitz?

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    How?The keys of the battle

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    Psychology:

    N. gives impression to Allies that French are afraid

    Gives up Pratzen Plateau

    Weak right wing

    Russians move on French right

    Camp fires to suggest retreat

    Clear others to hold until noon

    Combined French side attack at noon on marchingRussian columns

    Russians panick, fled through the marshes, French breakice...

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    Why Austerlitz?

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    ! English refuse to give up Malta (as agreed in Peaceof Amiens in 1802)

    ! Invasion of England not posible (Trafalgar 1084)-end of Boulogne camp

    ! Austria joins the 3rd alliance (England, Sweden,Russia)

    ! Napoleon decides to strike at Austrians & Russians

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    Outcomes

    ! French lose 9,000 soldiers out of 67,000 (13%)

    ! Allies lose 27,000 out of 73,000 (37%)

    ! Alexander: We are babies in the hand of a giant (26thDec 1804)

    ! Treaty of Pressburg between France and Austria. Austrianwithdraws from the 3rd coalition. A 40 million indemnity

    to France is included.

    ! Russians allowed to go home

    ! End of the Holy Roman Empire (Franis II) and beginningof Austria Empire (Franis I)

    ! Creation of Confederation of the Rhine, formed initially

    from 16 German states (structure of modern Germany)

    ! Creation of Kingdom of Bavaria

    ! Germany, Prussians prepare their 1806 campain...

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    Outline of our discussion

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    1. A quick review in 25 paintings

    2. Austerlitz Dec 2nd, 1805: What, How, Why &Outcomes

    3. Bonapartes leadership as general

    4. Napoleons leadership as CEO & Chairman

    5. Bonaparte, the innovator of modern militarystrategy

    6. Key hypothesis for discussion

    7. Conclusion: heroc vs fair leadership

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    Unmatched military(functional) performance:

    ! Battle of Lodi

    ! Battle of the Pyramids

    ! Battle of Marengo

    ! Battle of Austerlitz.

    ! Battle of Iena-Auerstadt

    ! Battle of Wagram

    ! Battle of the Moskova

    ! Battles of Campagne of France,Montargis, Montereau...

    ! Battle of Waterloo, the first true

    disaster in battle after earning morevictories than Hannibal and Alexandercombined!

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    Outline of our discussion

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    1. A quick review in 25 paintings

    2. Austerlitz Dec 2nd, 1805: What, How, Why &Outcomes

    3. Bonapartes leadership as general

    4. Napoleons leadership as CEO & Chairman

    5. Bonaparte, the innovator of modern militarystrategy

    6. Key hypothesis for discussion

    7. Conclusion: heroc vs fair leadership

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    Unmatched national(corporate) performance:

    ! First (and last) time France is assumingworld domination: Europe, the Frenchway

    ! Austerlitz only 10 yearsafter the reign ofTerror

    ! Building of modern French institutions:

    lyce, civil & commercial code, civiladministration (prefets), roads, canals,industry...

    ! France is the model for the liberatedcountries (Italy, Germany, Poland, )

    ! England near bankruptcy, end of the

    Austrian Empire, Prussia collapses, Spainas well

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    The Napoleonic Epic: Our Questions

    ! How could it happen? Where is the magic?

    ! Why did it end so abruptly? Why so littlesustainability?

    ! Why did Grouchy not save Napoleon at Waterloo,

    when Desaix did just that at Marengo 15 yearsearlier?

    ! Where lies the CEO & Chairmans contribution andresponsibility?

    ! Where lies that of his senior execs (generals)?

    ! Was Napoleon victim of an inferior strategy?

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    Outline of our discussion

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    1. A quick review in 25 paintings

    2. Austerlitz Dec 2nd, 1805: What, How, Why &Outcomes

    3. Bonapartes leadership as general

    4. Napoleons leadership as CEO & Chairman

    5. Bonaparte, the innovator of modern militarystrategy

    6. Key hypothesis for discussion

    7. Conclusion: heroc vs fair leadership

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    Napoleon Bonaparte:a very innovative generals rise to the top

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    Army ofthe South

    Army ofthe North

    InteriorArmy

    Head ofthe Army

    Justice

    Interior ForeignAffairs

    1st Consul(CEO/MD)

    Emperor(Chairman)

    a. 1800

    a. 1796

    a. 1802

    a. 1804

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    N: an early convert of todays organizationalleadership concepts

    ! Speed and flexibility (time-based competition)

    ! Centralized information and control, decentralizedoperations

    ! Modular architectures in the Army

    !

    Scenario planning

    ! Importance of information and communication

    ! Managing by walking (and sleeping) around

    ! Managing purpose, visibility, and credibility

    ! Managing by incentives:

    ! Values, rewards (promotion, Lgion dHonneur), stockoptions (after a successful campaign), status(ultimately, aristrocracy (the N. family)

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    Military innovation: a paradigm shift

    Corps dArme units: Flexible (re-)configurations

    ! Small semi-autonomous units

    ! Flexibly deployed

    ! Easily recombined as function of need

    Use of speed: Surprise the enemy, create uncertainty, make him hesitate,render his actions predictable, concentrate our resources to destroy him

    ! Use of light and fast units

    ! Centrally controlled, with superb view of currentengagements and with lightning decision-making at center

    ! Shared understanding of the grand plan at top, andthroughout, facilitates fast execution at bottom

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    Illustrating Bonapartes Military innovation:

    Fighting between the lines: initial position

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    Left

    Reserve Front

    Right

    150 km

    B.

    A.

    150 km

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    1/2 Frontsupports

    right

    Illustrating Bonapartes Military innovation:

    Fighting between the lines: action

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    Leftcorps

    Reservecorps

    Frontcorps

    Right isatacked

    150 km

    B.

    AustrianArmy

    150km

    Option 2:Left supports Right

    Option 1:Left defends Box

    Reserve rushesto support right 1/2 Front

    forbidsentry orexit fromthe Box

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    P.s. Military innovation: a paradigm shift

    ! Leadership unity

    ! Strategic sensitivity

    ! Flexible resource allocation

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    Defined by Doz & Kosonen (2008) as STRATEGIC AGILITY

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    P.s. B & his team at the top:formed only in his career

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    ! The first Italian Campaign

    !Convincing a desperate team of the new way tofight

    ! Three months of heavy training and discussion

    ! Collective learning of the new military strategy

    !They try it out and it works

    ! The moulding of the team at the top

    ! The individuals (Berthier, Lannes, Murat, )! The ways of working together

    ! The team culture

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    Outline of our discussion

    47

    1. A quick review in 25 paintings

    2. Austerlitz Dec 2nd, 1805: What, How, Why &Outcomes

    3. Bonapartes leadership as general

    4. Napoleons leadership as CEO & Chairman

    5. Bonaparte, the innovator of modern militarystrategy

    6. Key hypothesis for discussion

    7. Conclusion: heroc vs fair leadership

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    The rise and fallof Napoleon and of the

    French Empire: the external view

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    Scorecard in history textbooks (Russia or France)

    Lodi Marengo Austerlitz Russia Waterloo

    External(Markets)

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    FPL score

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    The rise and fallof Napoleon and of theFrench Empire: the Fair Process Leadership

    (FPL) argument

    Lodi Marengo Austerlitz Russia Waterloo

    Explanation behind FPLanalysis:Fair Process +Delay due to Organizational inertia

    Internal(Mgt)

    External(Markets)

    External score

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    The rise and fallof Napoleon and of theFrench Empire: The FPL Conclusion

    Explanationbehind FPL analysis:Breakdown of FPL as theroot cause

    Lodi Marengo Austerlitz Russia Waterloo

    POWER

    Internal(Mgt)

    Internal(Mgt)

    External(Markets)

    TOTAL(int & ext)

    ORGANIZATIONALINERTIA/ROUTINE

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    Outline of our discussion

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    1. A quick review in 25 paintings

    2. Austerlitz Dec 2nd, 1805: What, How, Why &Outcomes

    3. Bonapartes leadership as general

    4. Napoleons leadership as CEO & Chairman

    5. Bonaparte, the innovator of modern militarystrategy

    6. Key hypothesis for discussion

    7. Conclusion: heroc vs fair leadership

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    Main Lessons

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    " LEADERSHIP IS FAIR PROCESS (PROCESS DISCIPLINE &FAIRNESS BEHAVIOUR)

    " A SIGN OF DECREASING LEADERSHIP EFFECTIVENESS:REDUCED ENGAGEMENT, INCREASING RIGIDITY

    " GOOD LEADERS NEED TO REGULARLY BE BOUGHT IN BYTHEIR TEAM & NEED TO BE OPEN & ENCOURAGE THIS

    " SECOND FUNDAMENTAL FAILURE: LIMITED OR NO SELFEVALUATION & LEARNING

    " LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT REQUIRES : CHALLENGE& LETTING GO OF ONES TALENTS

    " FPL CAN BECOME A TEAM COMPETENCE & AN

    ORGANIZATIONAL COMPETENCE (IF DRIVEN FROM THE TOP)

    " FPL IS A LEADERSHIP MODEL FOR ALL LEVELS OF THE FIRM

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