Atoms Molecules and CompoundsMatter is anything that takes up space and has mass. Matter can come in four physical forms or phases; solid, liquid gas and plasma. Matter is composed of Quarks, Leptons, neutrinosOrganic means it contains a carbon and usually found in living organisms. Inorganic is matter without a C.
Atoms are the smallest units of an element that still have its characteristics.Atoms are composed of 3 types of particles, proton, neutron, electronIons are atoms that have lost or gained electrons, charged atomsCation + chargeAnion -chargeAtomic number is the number of protonsAtomic mass is the number of protons and neutronsIsotope-atoms of the same element with a different number of neutrons.
Electron Orbital filling1s22s22p63s23p6 3d104s24p6 4d104f145s25p6 5d105f146s26p6 6d107s27p6
ChemistryLaw of Conservation of Matter- matter cannot be created or destroyed but may be transformed from one form into another form. States of Matter-Solid, liquid, gas, and plasmaMixture is when elements keep there own identity ex solutionType, single and double replacement (substitution), synthesis, decompositionChemical energy is stored in the bonds.Catalyst-speeds up a chemical reaction with out being used upChemical reaction where two materials are combined and energy is exchanged and new material/s are formed.Reactants are what are originally combinedProducts are what is formedYield sign tells you which way the reaction will normally proceed. Lowest energy and highest enthalpy
Bonding Covalent Bond-Sharing bond to complete the outer shell, usually resulting in a moleculeIonic Bond-is a bond that actually has a transfer of electrons from one atom to another Making ions with a specific crystalline lattice, is the compound.Metallic Bond-the ability of a metallic compound to bend, Sea of Electrons, that roll.Hydrogen bond- a bond that contains hydrogen,
Van der waals Forces attractive forces between atoms
Laboratory made BismuthFluoriteGarnetBeryl
Chem Quiz1.How many protons, neutrons and electrons does Ca45/20 have?2.What is I 127/53, and I 126/53?3.If a Na atom becomes an ion with a +1 charge explain what happened.4.What is a sharing bond called?5.Organic means.
Chem Quiz1.How many protons, neutrons and electrons does Ca45/20 have?20Protons, 25 Neutrons, and 20 electrons2.What is I 127/53, and I 126/53? Isotopes of Iodine3.If a Na atom becomes an ion with a +1 charge explain what happened. The Na atom has lost 1 electron (-1) and is now a positive ion(cation)4.What is a sharing bond called? Covalent5.Organic means living or containing a carbon
Acid and BasepH is the reciprocal log of the hydronium ion concentration. Alkaline (7-14), acidic(1-7), 7 is neutralAlkalinity is how basic something is, Acidity is how acid some thing is.Usually acid have a H3O+, or H+ (Hydronium) in the cation and bases usually have an OH- (Hydroxide) in the anion. Acids may be vinegar, Acetic acid, Sulfuric Acid (H2SO4), Hydrochloric acid (HCl), Nitric Acid (HNO3)Bases are Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) Lye, drain cleaner, Magnesium hydroxide MgOH, Calcium hydroxide CaOH, antacids
Chemical EnergyEnergy is the ability to do workEnergy can be divided into two types.Kinetic energy-1/2 mv2 is the energy of motion.Potential Energy-mgh is the energy of position.Activation Energy-Energy needed to start a chemical reactionLaw of Conservation of energy- Energy cannot be created or destroyed but transformed.
ReactionsMost reactions are reversible, but tend toward lowest energy and greatest enthalpy (disorder).Reactants are the materials that are put together Products are the results of mixing chemically active elementsReactants -> Products. Reactions can be reversed, depending on conditions. If one of the reactants is in limited supply that limits how much or many of the product/s will be produced.To satisfy the Law of Conservation of Matter what ever you put into a reaction you will get out.
Type of ReactionsA. C6H12O6 -> 6H2O + 6CO2B. 6H2O + 6CO2 -> C6H12O6C. 2NaOH + Ca(C2H3O2) -> 2NaC2H3O2 + Ca(OH)2ZnSO4 + Cu -> Zn + CuSO4
Organic CompoundsOrganisms use some elements in large amounts some in trace amountsOrganic compounds are composed of chains or circles or elemental C. Organic compounds form the materials that living organisms are composed ofThe four major groups of organic compounds are carbohydrates, protein, lipids, and nucleic acids
Organic CompoundsLipids-Oil,fat: stored or reserve energy and tasteCarbohydrates-sugars, breads, cereals: Energy everyday or immediateProtein-Meat, beans, nuts: repair, maintenance, growth:Nucleic Acids-DNA,RNA, all cells has nucleic acids: Heredity, codes for the proper proteins to be produced.
Organic Compounds-containing C or come from living things.C electron configuration is 1s2 2sp3, forms 4 covalent bonds. Carbon can form single, double or triple bonds.Structural formula- rings, chains or combinations can be formed. So many different ways carbon can combine, stereoscopic isomers (mitten)Biosynthesis or Condensation-build up of organic compounds. Making of Polymers, or one large molecule from several smaller molecules. Monomers form polymersHydrolysis-splitting of molecules with water. Converting polymers to monomers.
Biosynthesis and CondensationWhat elements are present in the compounds?What are the building blocks or molecules that make up the compounds?What compounds or molecules make up the building blocks?
ProteinsExamples are beef, pork, chicken, and fish muscleComposed of Amino Acids(19), CHOSPN and FeAmine NH2Alkyl group R which is in the middle and is a variableOrganic Acid COOHCondensationHydrolysisSequence of AA shape thus determines the protein characteristicsProteins are very species specific. Antibodies per person varies as an example.
Protein, Enzymes(organic catalysts)Control specific reactions, controlling all of the chemical reactions in our bodiesHow an enzyme worksSubstrates-substance that enzyme causes to react.Active site is the area on an enzyme that fits a certain substrateOnce reaction is finished, enzyme moves onEnzyme system-team of enzymes Coenzyme nonprotein enzyme
Fats and LipidsMore energy per mass, More bondsExamples are oils, fats, waxes, butter Composed of C,H, and O, insoluble in waterFormation- Condensation, Dehydration Synthesis3 fatty acidsglycerolDecomposition-Hydrolysis (3 water + Fat -> 1 glycerol + 3 fatty acids)Saturated all single bonds, Unsaturated double bonds
Trans FatsTrans fat is the common name for unsaturated fat with trans-isomer (E-isomer) fatty acid(s). Because the term refers to the configuration of a double carbon-carbon bond, trans fats are sometimes monounsaturated or polyunsaturated, but never saturated.Trans fats are not essential fatty acids; indeed, the consumption of trans fats increases the risk of coronary heart disease12 by raising levels of "bad" LDL cholesterol and lowering levels of "good" HDL cholesterol.3 Health authorities worldwide recommend that consumption of trans fat be reduced to trace amounts. Trans fats from partially hydrogenated oils are more harmful than naturally occurring oils.4 Some studies have shown natural trans fats in beef and dairy products can have the opposite health effect and can actually be beneficial, e.g. lowering total and LDL cholesterol and triglyceride levels.567Unsaturated fat is a fat molecule containing one or more double bonds between the carbon atoms. Since the carbons are double-bonded to each other, there are fewer bonds connected to hydrogen, so there are fewer hydrogen atoms, hence the name, 'unsaturated'. Cis and trans are terms that refer to the arrangement of the two hydrogen atoms bonded to the carbon atoms involved in a double bond. In the cis arrangement, the hydrogens are on the same side of the double bond. In the trans arrangement, the hydrogens are on opposite sides of the double bond.The process of hydrogenation adds hydrogen atoms to unsaturated fats, eliminating double bonds and making them into partially or completely saturated fats. However, partial hydrogenation, if it is chemical rather than enzymatic, converts a part of cis-isomers into trans-unsaturated fats instead of hydrogenating them completely. Trans fats also occur naturally in a limited number of cases: Vaccenyl and conjugated linoleyl (CLA) containing trans fats occur naturally in trace amounts in meat and dairy products from ruminants, although the latter also constitutes a cis fat.
CarbohydratesMake up most of your diet, composed of CHO, examples are sugar, starches, cellulose.Sugars are organized in plants as foodMonosaccharide-simple sugarDisaccharides-double sugar Polysaccharides- starches Dehydration synthesisHydrolysisCarbohydrates if not used are converted to fats by the liver.
Nucleic AcidsGives instructions to the cell to make proteins, heredity, these instructions are passed on from generation to generationComposition Nucleotides5 carbon sugar Deoxyribose (Ribose minus an Oxygen)RibosePhosphoric acidNitrogen base Pyrimadine- this is the single ring structurePurines- this is the double ring structureTypesRibonucleic Acid (RNA)Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA)
DNA, RNA DNALinear, Double helix, Thymine, Deoxyribose sugar3 forms heredity, Biologically the Master Molecule of LifeNucleus, or ringsRNALinear, Single side ladder Urasil, Ribose sugar4 forms involved in making proteinsFound in all parts of the cell
Groups, NamesOrganic Acid(COOH)Amine NH2Alkyl RAlcohol (COH)AlkanesAlkenesAlkynes
ProteinProteinAmino AcidPeptide BondAlkylOrganic Acid Amine
LipidsLipidsGlycerolFatty AcidFatty AcidFatty Acid
Nucleic AcidRNA, DNANucleotideHydrogen BondingPhosphoric Acid5 Carbon Sugar Ribose, DeoxyriboseN- BasePurinePyrimadeines
CompoundElementsBuilding BlocksUnits that Form BlocksNucleic AcidFats, Lipids Carbohydrates Protein
ReactionsDehydration Synthesis, CondensationBuilding up of large molecule with the release of water as a product.HydrolysisBreaking apart of large molecules, with water as a reactant.
HomeostasisHomeostasis is that constant state of balance where everything in the body is in equilibrium.The cells are in a constant state of flux Or change to maintain a balance.Everything increases in size and number. Everything decreases in size and number.
HomeostasisCell transportPassive transportActive transportConcentration GradientOsmosisCarrier ProteinEndocytosisExocytosisDiffusionFacilitated DiffusionSodium-Potassiumpumpis added bywhich includessuch asof substances down theirsuch asOf substances against theirWhich uses a
Cell MembraneWhy some things are not passed through a membrane.Particle sizeSolubilityConditions inside and outside of the cellCharge, ions
ConditionsEnvironmentCellWater movementSolute conc in the HypoHyperInto cell environment is lower than in the cell
Solute conc in the HyperHypoOut of cellthe environment higher than in cell
Solute and environment isIsotonicIsotonicBalancedequal
Diffusion Diffusion is the gradual spreading out of molecules.Law of Diffusion substances diffuse form an area of high concentration to areas of lower concentration. Diffusion through a membraneNature of membranePermeable membraneSolute-what you want dissolvedSolvent-Universal solvent is water-what it is dissolved in Equilibrium diffusion pressure is zeroFactors that affect the rate of diffusionTemperatureMechanical agitationGreater concentration gradientPressure-from high to low
Osmosis- A Type of DiffusionOsmosis is the passage of water through a selectively permeable membrane from an area of high concentration to an are of lower concentrationA type of passive transport no cell energy is expendedConcentration gradient is a difference in concentrations of a material across a space(Percal)Osmosis and plant cells (osmotic system 2 solutions between a membrane)Hypotonic-more water on the inside than on the outside. Greater concentration of water molecules inside than outside the cell, water moves outside the cell. Cell crenate.Turgor pressure water in the cytoplasm pushes against the cell wall of the plant. This allows soft delicate tissue to become stiff. Ex. Primrose, bindweeds
Animal Water ProblemsAnimal cells have no cell wall to contain an increase in water molecules, they simply split or go through cytolysis.One celled organisms have real problems, keeping up with the the constant influx of water. Contractile vacuole constantly pumps out the water.Fish, and other aquatic organisms remove excess water in the gills, and urine.Kidney, Lungs and sweat glands remove excess water.Nature-H2O contains impurities, minerals Lowers the concentration of H2O moleculesOne celled animals burst in distilled H2O(100 % H2O), Contractile vacuole cannot keep up with H2O diffusing inBlood Same-Hemolysis in Distilled H2O, Crenate in salt water
PlasmolysisPlasmolysis is when the cell splits and loses turgor pressure
Isotonic, HyertonicIsotonic is when the passage of water is in equilibriumHypertonic higher water molecule concentration outside than inside of the cell. Water moves into the cell, lyses
Diffusion of IonsAcid, mineral, salt, base ionic solution is formedIons do not pass, membrane may be chargedHydrophilic-water loving, water attracting from the surface of the cell membraneHydrophobic-water scared. Water is repelled from the surface of the material
Active Transport (carrier molecules)Cell energy is used, so the cell membrane becomes more or less permeable depending on the situation.Root cells absorb mineral ions from the soil solution with a lower ion concentrationAlgae, Iodine conc 1000x greater than saltwaterGrated channel-Protein controlled passage that allows the cell to be permeated as needed. Material cell to cellSodium Potassium pump. Sodium is moved out and Potassium is moved in. Works against a gradientCarrier molecule that transports material through the membrane
Large MoleculesPinocytosis-cell drinking, water vacuolesAmino acids and fats Exocytosis-Large molecules exiting the cell Endocytosis-large molecules entering the cellPhagocytosis-engulfingVesicle forms as a result