Atoms, Ions, and MoleculesChapter 2 Section 1
Living things consist of atoms of different elements.ATOM the smallest basic unit of matterWhat is matter?Something that has mass and takes up space
ELEMENT a group of atoms of the same typeExamples: Hydrogen, Oxygen, Carbon, Nitrogen, etc.
Parts of the AtomNucleus (location center of the atom)Proton Positive Charge (+)NeutronNeutral Charge (0)
Energy levels (location surrounds nucleus)ElectronsNegative Charge (-)
Atomic # & Atomic MassAtomic # the # of protons (or electrons) Atomic Mass the # of protons and # of neutrons
# of Neutrons = Atomic Mass Atomic #
Use the periodic table to complete the table shown below:
ELEMENTSYMBOLPROTON #NEUTRON #ELECTRON #GoldHeliumTitaniumArsenicMercuryCarbonIridiumScandiumNitrogenSodium
Electron Energy LevelsFirst Energy LevelMaximum of 2 electrons (e-)Second Energy LevelMaximum of 8 e-Third Energy level and beyondStable with 8 e- in outer shell
BondingNot all atoms have full outer shellsThey are not happy or stableThey form bonds with other unhappy atoms to complete their outer shells
Compound a substance made of atoms of different elementsExamples: CO2, H20, NaCl, CH4
REVIEWHow are elements different from compounds?
How many electrons are needed to fill the outer energy level of oxygen?
Compounds are made of different elements2
Ionic BondingAn ion is an atom that has gained or lost one or more electrons.positive ions (lose electrons)negative ions (gain electrons)
Ionic bonds form between oppositely charged ions.Example: NaCl
Covalent BondCovalent bonds form when atoms share one or more pairs of electrons- produce strong bonds- examples: CO2, CH4, H2OMolecule two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds- examples: N2, H2, O2, CO2, H2O
Its show time.Work as a team to develop a skit demonstrating each type of bonding!
REVIEWWhat happens to electrons in outer energy levels when two atoms form a covalent bond? What distinguishes one element from another? Describe the formation of an ionic compound.
What is the difference between an ionic bond and a covalent bond?
How does a molecule differ form an atom?
REVIEWWhat happens to electrons in outer energy levels when two atoms form a covalent bond?Pairs of outer energy level electrons are sharedWhat distinguishes one element from another?The number of protons in the nucleusDescribe the formation of an ionic compound.One atom loses an electron, the other one gains an electron. The oppositely charged ions formed are attracted to each other.What is the difference between an ionic bond and a covalent bond?Electron pairs are shared in covalent bonds. Ionic bonds form when electrons are transferred and the oppositely charged ions attract. How does a molecule differ form an atom?A molecule is made up of two or more atoms held together by covalent bonds.
Exit ticket: Answer one of the questions below using complete sentences:What part of an atom do you think would be the most fun and why?Relationshipswhich type of bonding would you like to be involved in and why?
Investigate Van der Waals forces and the gecko!http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OoYeIsSkafIhttp://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gzm7yD-JuyM http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=HTbrsx1zARs