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  • ATECO TANK TECHNOLOGIES ENGINEERING SERVICE CO.

    ALUMINIUM GEODESIC DOME ROOF

    DESIGN PHASES

    FRAME MODELLING ( GEOMETRICAL MODELLING )

    STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS ( FRAME LOADING AND DATAINPUT )

    DESIGN CHECK ( RESULTS AND EVALUATION )

    REPORTING ( PRINTOUT )

    3D MODELLING ( THREE DIMENSIONAL REALISTIC MODELLING )

    ASSEMBLY AND SHOP DRAWING

    Support Modules

    WIND AND SNOW CALCULATION

    SEISMIC LOAD CALCULATION

    CROSS-SECTION OPRIMISATION

    TANK SHELL BUCKLING CALCULATION

    JAN. 2014

    ATECO TANK ENGINEERING DEPARTMENT

    www.atecotank.com

  • ATECO TANK GEODESIC DOME ROOF DESIGN PHASES

    ATECO DOME FRAME MODELLING

    ADFM is intended as a serious design tool for architects, engineers, and designers of geodesic structures including domes. It can also be very useful for others interested in studying the many fascinating aspects of geodesic design. ADFM is NOT a cookbook for building geodesic domes nor does it perform, or confirm, the structural integrity of any design. Our ADFM application is very well suited for structural analysis of geodesic structures with many features included especially for this purpose.

    ADFM is a design utility that can generate a wide variety of geodesic and spherical (or ellipsoidal) 3D (wire frame and surface models) for import to CAD or finite element analysis applications and for generating detail design data for the members that make up the structure. In addition to generating its own structures, it can import custom text files of spherical points and element created in other applications to take advantage of the many geometric analysis features in ADFM.

    ADFM can produce tables of hubs, struts, and panels grouped into like types with detail geometric information. The like-types of hubs, panels, and/or struts can be highlighted on the structural display. Design drawings of hubs and panels can be output as clean DXF files suitable for import to CAD or structural analysis applications. ADFM is

    compatible the structural analysis application as well as with many CAD drawing programs.

    ADFM is not only a practical design tool but is an educational tool as well. It supports all major types of geodesic layouts (breakdown methods) for the icosahedron, octahedron, and tetrahedron for both Class I and II with special features for studying single face layouts. ADFM is the only geodesic generator application that supports all three standard breakdown methods for both geodesic class I and II for all the polyhedrons as discussed in the popular geodesic texts.

    GENERAL DATA ( Example )

    CONFIGURATION

    Spheric Zenith Z Radius 46,3303 Rings 10 Sectors 8,0000 Shifted rings 4 Number of nodes 362 HUBS Number of hubs 361 Number of types 26 PANELS

    Number of panels 672 Number of types 44 Surface area 2908,0308 Largest panels 5,7495 Smallest panel 3,4054

    Largest minimum width 3,0549 Volume 53535,5476 STRUTS Number of struts 1032 Number of types 30 Total length 3334,7579 Longest strut 3,7898 Shortest strut 2,3717 Maximum end-angle 2,34 Minimum end-angle 1,47 DOME METRICS

    Dome height 10,0200 Base major radius 28,7760 Base minor radius 0,0000 Spherical radius 46,3303 Base area 2593,9987

    STEP-1 FRAME MODELLING

    http://www.atecotank.com/

  • ATECO TANK GEODESIC DOME ROOF DESIGN PHASES

    ATECO DOME FRAME STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

    FEA is a powerful 3D FEA program helping structural engineers to meet requirements in modern civil engineering. Intuitive handling, user friendliness

    and efficient data input make working with FEA easy.

    The FEA program family is based on a modular system. The main program FEA

    is used to define structures, materials and loads for planar and spatial structural systems consisting of plates, walls, shells and members. Creating

    combined structures as well as modeling solid and contact elements is also

    possible.

    FEA provides deformations, internal and support forces as well as soil contact stresses. Add-on modules facilitate the data input by creating structures as

    well as connections automatically and perform further analyses and designs.

    The modular approach allows you to combine all programs individually

    according to your needs. Upgrades at a later time are always possible. FEA offering numerous interfaces represents the perfect tool for a smooth

    interaction between CAD and structural analysis in Building Information

    Modeling (BIM).

    On the following webpages you can get an insight into the possibilities available in FEA. You can also try the free trial version to calculate and design

    structures yourself.

    Load Cases / Action Types

    In the dialog box "Edit Load Cases and Combinations", you can create and

    manage load cases as well as generate action, load and result combinations. It is possible to assign different types of actions to the individual load cases in

    accordance with the selected standard. If several loads have been assigned

    to an action type, they can be effective simultaneously or alternatively (for

    example wind from either the left or right).

    Individual Setting of Calculation Parameters

    All types of members can be calculated according to linear static, second-

    order or large deformation analysis. This selection option is available for load

    cases as well as load combinations. Further calculation parameters can be

    set individually for load cases, load and result combinations, which increases the flexibility regarding calculation method and detailed specifications.

    Incremental Load Application

    Loads can be applied incrementally. The increment option is especially useful

    for calculations according to large deformation analysis. For members you can take into account shear deformations and relate internal forces to the

    deformed or undeformed system. Furthermore, FEA is able to perform a post-

    critical analysis.

    Wind and Snow Load Generation According to Eurocode For modeling frameworks load generators are available to create wind loads

    according to EN 1991-1-4 and snow loads according to EN 1991-1-3. The load

    cases are generated depending on the roof structure. Another generator

    creates coating loads (ice). Recurring load combinations can be stored as

    templates.

    Easy Structure Check

    Members can be extended or divided graphically. The structure check detects

    input errors like identical nodes or double members quickly and deletes them.

    Intersecting members can be connected automatically during the input. The measure function allows for the determination of lengths and angles for

    members and surfaces.

    Non-Linearities of Members and Supports

    You can specify non-linearities for member end releases (yielding, tearing, slippage etc.) and supports (including friction). Special dialog boxes are

    additionally available to determine spring stiffnesses of columns and walls

    based on the geometry input.

    STEP-2 STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS

  • ATECO TANK GEODESIC DOME ROOF DESIGN PHASES

    ATECO DOME STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS DESIGN CHECK The FEA add-on module ALUMINIUM designs members and sets of members consisting of aluminum for the ultimate and the serviceability limit state according to the standard The data specified in FEA concerning material, loads and load combinations must be entered in accordance with the design concept described in the Eurocode. The FEA material library already contains appropriate materials. Furthermore, FEA allows for an automatic creation of appropriate load combinations in accordance with the Eurocode. It is also possible to generate all combinations manually in FEA. In the add-on module ALUMINIUM you select first the members and sets of members that you want to design. In addition, you determine the load cases, load combinations and result combinations for the design. During the next steps, you can adjust the preset settings for lateral intermediate supports and effective lengths. In case continuous members are used, it is possible to define individual support conditions and eccentricities for each intermediate node of the single members. Then, in the program's background, a special FEA tool determines the critical loads and

    moments required for the stability analysis.

    Design for tension, compression, bending, shear and combined internal forces

    Stability analysis for flexural buckling, torsional buckling and lateral torsional buckling

    Automatic determination of critical buckling loads and critical moment for lateral torsional buckling for general load applications and support conditions by means of a special FEA program (eigenvalue analysis) integrated in the module

    Option to apply discrete lateral supports for beams

    Automatic cross-section classification

    Integration of parameters from national annexes for the following countries:

    DIN EN 1999-1-1/NA:2010-12 (Germany)

    SN EN 1999-1-1/NA:2009-02 (Czech Republic)

    IS EN 1999-1-1/NA:2010-03 (Ireland)

    DK EN 1999-1-1/NA:2007-11 (Denmark)

    STN EN 1999-1-1/NA:2011-03 (Slovakia)

    CYS EN 1999-1-1/NA:2009-07 (Cyprus)

    UNI EN 1999-1-1/NA:2011-02-25 (Italy)

    NBN EN 1999-1-1/NA:2011-03 (Belgium)

    NEN-EN 1999-1-1/NA:2011-12 (Netherlands)

    BS EN 1999-1-1/NA:2007+A1:2009 (Great Britain)

    Serviceability limit state design for characteristic, frequent or quasi-permanent design situation

    Automatic cross-section optimization

    Variety of cross-sections provided, for example I-sections, C-sections, rectangular hollow sections, square sections, angles with equal and unequal legs, flat steel, round bars

    Clearly arranged results tables

    Detailed results documentation with references to design equations used and described in the standard

    Various options to filter and arrange results, including results listed by member, cross-section, x-location or load cases, load combinations and result combinations

    Results table for slenderness of members and governing internal forces

    Parts list with weight and volume specifications

    Seamless integration in FEA

    Metric and imperial units

    STEP-3 DESIGN CHECK

  • ATECO TANK GEODESIC DOME ROOF DESIGN PHASES

    ATECO DOME FRAME STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS REPORT

    MODEL ( Nodes,Lines;Members,Supports,Cross Sections)

    LOAD CASES & COMBINATIONS

    LOADS

    SUPPORT FORCES

    DEFORMATIONS

    LOCAL DEFORMATIONS

    GLOBAL DEFORMATIONS

    INTERNAL FORCES

    COEFFIENTS FOR BUCKLING

    MEMBER SLENDERNESSES

    CROSS-SECTIONS INTERNAL FORCES

    DESIGN OF ALUMINIUM MEMBERS

    GENERAL DESIGN DATA

    DETAILS

    NATIONAL ANENX

    MATERIALS

    CROSS-SECTIONS

    MEMBERS DETAILS & LENGHTS & EFFECTIVE LENGHTS

    DESIGN BY LOAD CASES AND COMBINATIONS

    DESIGN BY CROSS SECTIONS

    DESIGN BY MEMBERS

    GOVERNING INTERNAL FORCES BY MEMBERS

    MEMBER SLENDERNESSES

    PARTS LISTS BY MEMBER

    Colored Representation of Internal Forces

    The result tables show available positive and negative internal forces highlighted

    by colors. Furthermore, the relation to extreme values is indicated. Result tables

    of the design modules use color scales to represent respective design ratios. In

    this way, you can quickly find out the design locations that are decisive.

    Result Diagrams

    The result diagrams of members, surfaces and supports can be configured freely:

    You can define smooth ranges with average values or, if necessary, display and

    hide the distribution of results. This option helps you to evaluate results

    specifically. All diagrams can be integrated in the printout report.

    Visualization of Results

    Results on the rendered model are represented by a number of colors so that

    deformations such as the rotation of a member can be detected easily. Colors and

    the range of values can be freely defined in the control panel. Computer animation

    of deformations, surface stresses as well as internal forces can be set and saved

    as a video file.

    Detailed Result Tables

    The first result table is represented by a summarized overview making up the

    balance for the equilibrium of forces in the structural system and the maximum

    deformations. In addition, FEA shows you information concerning the calculation

    process. All result tables can be filtered by specific criteria such as extreme

    values or design locations.

    ALUMINIUM MODULE

    The first results table shows the maximum design ratios with the corresponding

    design for each designed load case, load combination or result combination.

    The subsequent tables show all detailed results sorted by specific subjects in

    extendable tree menus. Moreover, it is possible to display all intermediate results

    for each location along the members. In this way, you can easily retrace how the

    individual designs have been carried out by the module.

    The complete module data is part of the FEA printout report. The contents for the

    report and the extent of the output data can be selected specifically for the

    individual designs.

    STEP-4 REPORTING

  • ATECO TANK GEODESIC DOME ROOF DESIGN PHASES

    ATECO DOME 3D MODELLING

    3D CAD software for mechanical design 3D CAD software offers an easy-to-use set of tools for 3D mechanical design,

    documentation, and product simulation. Digital Prototyping with Inventor

    helps you design and validate your products before they are built to deliver

    better products, reduce development costs, and get to market faster.

    3D CAD software products offer a comprehensive, flexible set of software for 3D mechanical design, product simulation, tooling creation, engineer to order,

    and design communication. Inventor takes you beyond 3D to Digital

    Prototyping by enabling you to produce an accurate 3D model that can help

    you design, visualize, and simulate your products before they are built. Digital

    Prototyping with Inventor helps companies design better products, reduce

    development costs, and get to market faster. 3D mechanical design software includes CAD productivity and design

    communication tools that can help you reduce errors, communicate more

    effectively, and deliver more innovative product designs faster. The Inventor

    model is an accurate 3D digital prototype that can validate the form, fit, and

    function of a design as you work and unites direct modeling and parametric workflows so you always have the right tool for the job.

    3D CAD software can help you design, visualize, and simulate a more complete

    digital representation of your end product. It includes all of the core 3D

    mechanical design, CAD productivity, and design communication functionality

    of Autodesk Inventor plus extended capabilities for:

    Features

    Engineering design productivity

    Digital Prototyping Easy-to-use 3D mechanical design

    Large assembly design

    Sheet metal design

    Rules-based design/automation

    Catalog/purchased/standard part library Frame and weldment design

    Plastic parts design

    Mold, and tool and die

    Electrical systems design/tube and pipe runs

    Visualization

    Real-time design visualization

    Simulation and design validation

    Validate performance with simulation and FEA Point cloud tools

    Select material by environmental/cost impact

    Assembly collision and interference detection

    Check for manufacturability

    Draft analysis

    CAD file conversion and compatibility

    Review/mark up DWG, DWF, and PDF files

    Mobile and online sharing of 3D designs

    BIM interoperability

    Native translators

    CAD rendering and design documentation

    Professional drafting and documentation tools

    Native support for DWG files

    Automatic drawing view creation BOM generation

    International standards support

    STEP-5 3D MODELLING

  • ATECO TANK GEODESIC DOME ROOF DESIGN PHASES

    ATECO DOME ASSEMBLY DRAWINGS (TYPICAL LIST )

    GENERAL ARRENGEMENT DRAWINGS.

    BEAM PLAN ASSEMBLY DRAWING.

    NODE PLAN ASSEMBLY DRAWINGS.

    SHEET PLAN ASSEMBLY DRAWINGS.

    FULL STRUCTURE ASSEMBLY DRAWING.

    1 SEGMENT STRUCTURE ASSEMBLY DRAWING.

    OUTWARD STRUCTURE ASSEMBLY DRAWING

    INWARD STRUCTURE ASSEMBLY DRAWING

    DOME LIFTING POINT TYPICAL ARRANGEMENT

    LIFTING PLAN

    LIFTING JOINT ARRANGEMENT DRAWING

    ANCHOR BOLT ARRANGEMENT DRAWING

    BATTEN-SKIN INSTALLATION DRAWING

    BATTEN-SKIN PANEL AND NODE INSTALLATION PLAN

    TYPICAL NODE CONNECTION INSTALLATION DETAIL

    FIXED SUPPORT INSTALLATION DETAIL

    SLIDING SUPPORT INSTALLATION DETAIL

    CENTRE/FREE VENT DETAIL

    CENTRE/FREE VENT INSTALLATION DETAIL

    TRI-ANGULAR SKYLIGHT INSTALLATION DETAIL

    NODE INSTALLATION DETAILS

    HUB COVER INSTALLATION DETAILS

    CENTER SAFETY LINE INSTALLATION DETAIL,

    LIFTING LUG DETAIL

    GAUGE PIPE BOOT DETAILS

    GAUGE PIPE BOOT INSTALLATION DRAWING

    HUB CONNECTION ASSEMBLY DETAILS

    MANHOLE COVER INSTALLATION DETAIL

    GAUGE HATCH COVER INSTALLATION DETAIL

    NOZZLE CONNECTION DETAILS

    FIRE FIGHTING SYSTEM INSTALLATION DETAILS

    PLATFORM AND WALKWAY INSTALLATION DETAILS

    TYPICAL BEAM AND SECTIONAL DETAIL DRAWINGS

    STEP-6 ASSEMBLY SHOP DRAWING

  • ATECO TANK GEODESIC DOME ROOF DESIGN PHASES

    ATECO DOME STRUT CROSS SECTION OPTIMISATION Section Properties of Thin-Walled Sections, Elastic and Plastic Design

    SPO can be run independently. This program calculates the cross-section properties for thin-walled sections of any shape and determines their stresses. There exists an interface to SAS and FEA: SPO sections are also accessible in the framework and FEA programs, and vice versa it is possible to import the internal forces from SAS and FEA into SPO. The sections can be defined graphically, in tables or by importing a DXF file. Features

    Modeling of the cross-section via elements, sections, arcs and point elements Expandable library of material properties, yield strengths and limit stresses Section properties of open, closed or non-connected cross-sections Ideal section properties for sections featuring different materials Stress analysis, inclusive of design for primary and secondary torsion Check for (c/t) ratios of compression parts Effective cross-section according to

    DIN 18800-2:1990-11 EN 1993-1-5:2006

    Classification according to EN 1993-1-1:2005 Interface with MS Excel to import and export tables Printout report with option to print short form Cross-Section Properties

    Cross-sectional area A Shear areas Ay, Az, Au and Av

    Centroid position yS, zS Second moments of area Iy, Iz, Iyz, Iu, Iv, Ip, IpM Radii of gyration iy, iz, iyz, iu, iv, ip, ipM Inclination of principal axes

    Section weight G Section perimeter U Torsional constants J, JSt.Venant, JBredt, Jsecondary Location of shear center yM, zM Warping constants IS, IM resp. ID for lateral restraint

    Max/Min section moduli Sy, Sz, Su, Sv, SM with locations

    Section ranges ru, rv, rM,u, rM,v according to DIN 4114 Reduction factor M Plastic Section Properties

    Axial force Npl,d Shear forces Vpl,y,d, Vpl,z,d, Vpl,u,d, Vpl,v,d Bending moments Mpl,y,d, Mpl,z,d, Mpl,u,d, Mpl,v,d Section moduli Zy, Zz, Zu, Zv

    Shear areas Apl,y, Apl,z, Apl,u, Apl,v Position of area bisection axes fu, fv Display of the inertia ellipse Statical Moments

    First moments of area Qu, Qv, Qy, Qz with location of maxima and specification of shear flow

    Warping coordinates M

    Warping areas QM

    Cell areas Am Stresses

    Normal stresses x due to axial force, bending moments and warping bimoment Shear stresses due to shear forces as well as primary and secondary torsional

    moments

    Equivalent stresses eqv with customizable factor for shear stresses

    Stress ratios, related to limit stresses Stresses for element edges or center lines Shear Wall Sections

    Section properties of non-connected cross-sections. Shear wall shear forces due to bending and torsion Plastic Analysis

    Plastic capacity design with determination of the enlargement factor pl

    Check of the (c/t) ratios following the design methods el-el, el-pl or pl-pl according to DIN 18800

    CROSS-SECTION OPTIMISATION

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  • ATECO TANK GEODESIC DOME ROOF WIND LOAD CALCULATION

    ATECO DOME WIND LOAD CALCULATION

    MecaWind is a cost effective program used by Engineers and

    designers to perform Wind calculations per ASCE 7-05 and ASCE 7-

    10. The program is simple to use, and offers a professional looking

    output with all necessary wind calculations. The user also has a great

    deal of conrol at their fingertips to customize their output to suite

    their needs.

    The base version of the software is Wind, and it offers the most cost

    effective option of performing wind calculations. Wind Pro offers the

    same calculations, with the added benefit of being able to graphically

    see all Main Wind Force Resisting System (MWFRS) pressures on each

    surface. Seeing the pressures graphically gives the user a real

    advantage at being able to visualize what is physically

    occuring. Figure 3 shows a typical MWFRS graphic. The user can turn

    on/off different surfaces, change colors or rotate and manipulate the

    graphic just as you could in any 3D modeling package. In addition you

    can toggle between Wind Direction, +/- Internal Building Pressures

    and Minimum wind pressures with ease.

    Input Parameters: Detailed Wind Load Design (Method 2) per ASCE 7-05

    Basic Wind Speed(V) = 122,00 mph Structure Type = BUILDING

    Structural Category = III Exposure Category = C

    Natural Frequency = N/A Flexible Structure = No

    Importance Factor = 1,15 Kd Directional Factor = 0,85

    Alpha = 9,50 Zg = 900,00 ft

    At = 0,11 Bt = 1,00

    Am = 0,15 Bm = 0,65

    Cc = 0,20 l = 500,00 ft

    Epsilon = 0,20 Zmin = 15,00 ft

    f: Dome Height = 20,00 ft hD: Cylinder Base Height= 45,00 ft

    D: Cylinder Base Dia = 100,00 ft

    Gust Factor Calculations

    Gust Factor Category I Rigid Structures - Simplified Method

    Gust1: For Rigid Structures (Nat. Freq.>1 Hz) use 0.85 = 0,85

    Gust Factor Category II Rigid Structures - Complete Analysis

    Zm: 0.6*Ht = 33,00 ft

    lzm: Cc*(33/Zm)^0.167 = 0,20

    Lzm: l*(Zm/33)^Epsilon = 500,00 ft

    Q: (1/(1+0.63*((D+Ht)/Lzm)^0.63))^0.5 = 0,88

    Gust2: 0.925*((1+1.7*lzm*3.4*Q)/(1+1.7*3.4*lzm)) = 0,86

    Gust Factor Summary

    Not a Flexible Structure use the Lessor of Gust1 or Gust2 = 0,85

    Figure 6-5 Internal Pressure Coefficients for Buildings, GCpi

    GCPi : Internal Pressure Coefficient = +/-0,18

    Base Cylinder Wind Pressures per Figure 6-21:

    h: Height of Cylinder = 45,00 ft

    D: Outer Diameter of Cylinder = 100,00 ft

    h/D: h / D = 0,5

    Cf: Force Coeff for Moderately Smooth Round - Figure 6-21 = 0,500

    Kz: Velocity pressure Coefficient @ Top of Cylinder = 1,070

    Kzt: Topographic Factor = 1,000

    Kd: Directionality Factor = 0,950

    G: Gust Factor = 0,850

    qz: Velocity Pressure: 0.00256*Kz*Kzt*Kd*V^2 = 39,84 psf

    P: Wind Pressure Acting on Cylinder: qz*G*Cf = 16,93 psf

    External Pressure Coefficients for Domed Roof, Cp per Figure 6-7

    D-Diameter of cylinder structure = 100,00 ft

    f-Height of Dome = 20,00 ft

    hD-Height of cylinder base = 45,00 ft

    f/D = 0,20

    hD/D = 0,45

    Point Cp Wind Press (-GCpi) Wind Press (+GCpi)

    psf psf

    ------ ---------- ------------------ ------------------

    A -0,906 -24,532 -39,495

    B -1,016 -28,430 -43,393

    C -0,450 -8,417 -23,380

    Load Case A - Linear Interpolation between pt A & B and B & C

    Line # X Wind Press (-GCpi) Wind Press (+GCpi) ft psf psf

    ------ ---------- ------------------ ------------------

    0 ,000 -24,532 -39,495

    1 12,500 -25,506 -40,469

    2 25,000 -26,481 -41,444

    3 37,500 -27,456 -42,419

    4 50,000 -28,430 -43,393

    5 62,500 -23,427 -38,390

    6 75,000 -18,423 -33,387 7 87,500 -13,420 -28,383

    8 100,000 -8,417 -23,380

    Note: D/8 = 12,5 ft

    Notes - Case A

    Load Case B - Const value of A

  • ATECO TANK SHELL BUCKLING ANALYSIS

    ATECO DOME WIND LOAD CALCULATION

    Plate Buckling Analysis for Plates with or Without Stiffeners The ATECO program PLATE-BUCKLING is used to perform plate buckling

    analyses for rectangular plates according to the following standards:

    EN 1993-1-5:2006

    DIN 18800-3:1990-11 You can apply horizontal or vertical stiffeners to the plates (for example flat

    plates, angles, T-stiffeners, trapezoidal stiffeners, C-sections). Loading on the

    plate boundaries can be applied in several ways. It is also possible to import

    them from FEA.

    The plate buckling design in PLATE-BUCKLING always takes into account the total buckling panel because in this way stiffeners that may be available are

    considered in the 3D FE model. Thus, designs for single (c/t) parts or buckling

    panel sections are omitted.

    The following national annexes (NAs) are available for the design according to Eurocode 3:

    o DIN EN1993-1-5/NA:2010-12 (Germany) o CSN EN1993-1-5/NA:2008-07 (Czech Republic) o UNI EN1993-1-5/NA:2011-02 (Italy) o NBN EN 1993-1-5/NA:2011-03 (Belgium)

    In addition to the NAs listed above, you can specify user-defined NAs with your

    own factors.

    Import of all relevant internal forces from FEA by selecting numbers of members and buckling panels with determination of governing boundary

    stresses

    Summary of stresses in load cases with determination of governing load

    Separate materials can be set for stiffener and plate

    Import of stiffeners from comprehensive library (flat plate and bulb flat steel, angle, T-, C- and trapezoidal stiffener)

    Determination of effective widths according to EN 1993-1-5 (table 4.1 or 4.2) or DIN 18800 part 3 eq. (4)

    Optional calculation of critical local buckling stresses by analytical formulas of annexes A.1, A.2, A.3 of EC 3 or by means of FEA calculation

    Designs (stress, deformation, torsional buckling) of longitudinal and transverse stiffeners

    Option to consider buckling effects according to DIN 18800, part 3, eq. (13)

    Photo-realistic representation (3D rendering) of buckling panel including stiffeners, stress conditions and buckling modes with animation

    Documentation of all input and output data in printout report prepared for test engineer

    Analysis Analyses are carried out successively by eigenvalue calculation of the ideal

    buckling values for the individual stress conditions as well as of the buckling value

    for the simultaneous effectiveness of all stress components.

    The performance of the buckling analysis is based on the method of reduced

    stresses, comparing the acting stresses with a limit stress condition reduced

    from the yield condition of von Mises for each buckling panel. The basis for the

    design is a single global slenderness ratio determined on the basis of the entire stress field. Thus, an analysis of single loading and the subsequent merging via

    interaction criterion is omitted.

    To determine the plate buckling behavior which is similar to the behavior of a

    buckling member, PLATE-BUCKLING calculates the eigenvalues of the ideal panel

    buckling values with freely assumed longitudinal edges. Then, slenderness ratios

    and reduction factors are determined according to EN 1993-1-5, Chapter 4 or

    Annex B, or DIN 18800, part 3, Table 1. Finally, the analysis is performed in accordance with EN 1993-1-5, Chapter 10, or DIN 18800, part 3, Eq. (9), (10) or (14).

    The buckling panel is discretized in finite quadrilateral or, if necessary, triangular

    elements. Each node of an element has six degrees of freedom.

    The bending component of the triangular element is based on the LYNN-DHILLON

    element (2nd Conf. Matrix Meth. JAPAN USA, Tokyo) according to the bending

    theory described by Mindlin. The membrane component, however, is based on the BERGAN-FELIPPA element. The quadrilateral elements consist of four triangular

    elements and the inner node is eliminated.