ARTID121 - Baroque North Europe Rococo

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Popes, Peasants, Monarchs, and Merchants:

Baroque Art in Northern Europe and Rococo Art ART ID 121 | Study of WesternArtsSlide concept by William V. Ganis, PhD NYIT Center for Teaching and Learning with Technology

With modifications by Arch. Edeliza V. Macalandag, UAP

In the sixteenth century, Protestants in the northern provinces of the Netherlands broke away from Spain and established the Dutch Republic. The southern provinces that remained loyal to Spain and retained Catholicism as their official religion became the Spanish Netherlands or Flanders (more or less modern-day Belgium).

Flemish Baroque

Sir Peter Paul Rubens; 28 June 1577 30 May 1640), was a Flemish Baroque painter, and a proponent of an extravagant Baroque style that emphasised movement, colour, and sensuality. He is well-known for his Counter-Reformation altarpieces, portraits, landscapes, and history paintings of mythological and allegorical subjects. In addition to running a large studio in Antwerp that produced paintings popular with nobility and art collectors throughout Europe, Rubens was a classically educated humanist scholar, art collector, and diplomat who was knighted by both Philip IV, King of Spain, and Charles I, King of England.

Peter Paul Rubens Elevation of the Cross Antwerp Cathedral, Antwerp, Belgium1610 oil on panel 15 ft. 2 in. x 11 ft. 2 in.

A pan-European synthesis: The Flemish painter Peter Paul Rubens synthesized in his art a variety of mostly Italian influences to create an international Baroque style. His various influences are evident in the Elevation of the Cross painted for Antwerp Cathedral. The combination of dynamic diagonals, strong modeling in dark and light, and anatomically powerful figures involved in violent action creates a scene of intense physical and emotional drama.

Peter Paul Rubens Elevation of the Cross Antwerp Cathedral, Antwerp, Belgium1610 oil on panel 15 ft. 2 in. x 11 ft. 2 in.

Peter Paul Rubens The Victory of Eucharistic Truth over Heresyca. 1626 oil on board 33 7/8 in. x 41 3/8 in.

Peter Paul Rubens The Three Gracesoil on canvas 87 in. x 71 1/4 in.

Drawing on the masters: The vigor and passion of Rubens's style is seen at its most vital in his images of the human body. A black chalk drawing of Laocon demonstrates his careful study of Classical representations of the human form.

Peter Paul Rubens Drawing of Laoconca. 1600-1608 black and white chalk drawing with bistre wash approximately 1 ft. 7 in. x 1 ft. 7 in.

An extravagant arrival: The rich, decorative splendor of Rubens's painting of the Arrival of Marie de' Medici at Marseilles is enlivened by the inclusion of allegorical personifications and mythological figures.

Peter Paul Rubens Arrival of Marie de Medici at Marseilles1622-1625 oil on canvas approximately 5 ft. 1 in. x 3 ft. 9 1/2 in.

Protesting war: Rubens himself provides a written explication of the content of Allegory of the Outbreak of War and also reveals his opinions on military conflict.

Peter Paul Rubens Allegory of the Outbreak of War1638 oil on canvas 6 ft. 9 in. x 11 ft. 3 7/8 in.

Elegant court portraiture: Elegant Portraits of England's King: Anthony Van Dyck's elegant portrait of Charles I Dismounted shows the king with regal poise and exuding an air of absolute authority, standing casually next to his horse in a landscape.

Anthony Van Dyck Charles I Dismountedca. 1635 oil on canvas 9 ft. x 7 ft.

The breakfast piece: Clara Peeters was particularly renowned for her depictions of food and flowers together, and for still lifes that included bread and fruit.

Clara Peeters Still Life with Flowers, Goblet, Dried Fruit and Pretzels1611 oil on panel 1 ft. 7 3/4 in. x 2 ft. 1 1/4 in.

The Dutch Republic Prosperity in the provinces: The economic prosperity of the Dutch Republic in the seventeenth century, and the absence of an absolute ruler, concentrated political power in the hands of an urban patrician class of merchants and manufacturers. The Protestant objection to art: The northern Netherlands were predominantly Protestant. The prevailing Calvinism rejected art in churches. Consequently, relatively little religious art was produced in the Dutch Republic at this time, although some artists (often Catholics) did create the occasional religious image.

Dutch Baroque

A moving religious scene: After he returned from a trip to Italy, where he fell under the influence of Caravaggio, the Catholic painter Hendrick ter Brugghen painted the Calling of Saint Matthew in a manner that echoes the naturalistic presentation of the figures of Caravaggio's painting of the same subject. However, ter Brugghen employs a more colorful palette of soft tints and reduces the contrasts of dark and light.

Hendrick ter Brugghen Calling of Saint Matthew1621 oil on canvas 3 ft. 4 in. x 4 ft. 6 in.

Depicting daily Dutch life: Gerrit van Honthorst's Supper Party is a moralizing genre scene showing an informal gathering of unidealized human figures. The influence of Caravaggio is evident in the mundane setting and the dramatic lighting. A new development is the placement of the light source within the Gerrit van painting.


Supper Party1620 oil on canvas 7 ft. x 4 ft. 8 in.

Face-to-Face: Frans Hals, who specialized in portraiture, painted a group portrait of the Archers of Saint Hadrian, which he enlivened by showing each man as both a troop member and an individual with a distinct personality. The painting has a lively impromptu energy, an effect that is enhanced by Hals's Frans Hals vivacious brushwork.

Archers of Saint Hadrianca. 1633 oil on canvas approximately 6 ft. 9 in. x 11 ft.

Prim and proper Dutch women: Hals's more somber group portrait of The Women Regents of the Old Men's Home at Haarlem communicates a stern, puritanical, and composed sensibility.

Frans Hals The Women Regents of the Old Mens Home at Haarlem1664 oil on canvas 5 ft. 7 in. x 8 ft. 2 in.

Rembrandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (15 July 1606 4 October 1669) was a Dutch painter and etcher. He is generally considered one of the greatest painters and printmakers in European art history and the most important in Dutch history. [2] His contributions to art came in a period of great wealth and cultural achievement that historians call the Dutch Golden Age, when Dutch Golden Age painting, although in many ways antithetical to the Baroque style that dominated Europe, was extremely prolific and innovative. Having achieved youthful success as a portrait painter, Rembrandt's later years were marked by personal tragedy and financial hardships. Yet his etchings and paintings were popular throughout his lifetime, his reputation as an artist remained high,and for twenty years he taught many important Dutch painters.Rembrandt's greatest creative triumphs are exemplified especially in his portraits of his contemporaries, selfportraits and illustrations of scenes from the Bible. His self-portraits form a unique and intimate biography, in which the artist surveyed himself without vanity and

A surgical lesson: Rembrandt van Rijn was the leading Dutch painter of his time. In the group portrait of the Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp, Rembrandt delves into the psyche and personality of his Rembrandt van Rijn sitters.

Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Tulp1632 oil on canvas 5 ft. 3 3/4 in. x 7 ft. 1 1/4 in.

An energetic group portrait: In his famous group portrait of The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq, Rembrandt inventively shows the excitement and activity of the men as they prepare to parade. The dramatic lighting enhances the effect.

Rembrandt van Rijn The Company of Captain Frans Banning Cocq (Night Watch)1642 oil on canvas 11 ft. 11 in. x 14 ft. 4 in.

Celebrating Christs humility: Rembrandt also probed the states of the human soul in religious paintings and prints that interpret biblical narratives in human terms. The spiritual, inwardturning contemplation of his religious works is seen in the tender, personal emotions and eloquent simplicity of his painting of The Return of the Prodigal Son.

Rembrandt van Rijn Return of the Prodigal Sonca. 1665 oil on canvas 8 ft. 8 in. x 6 ft. 9 in.

Lighting the way: A hallmark of Rembrandt's style is finely nuanced treatment of light. He manipulated the direction, intensity, distance, and surface texture of light and shadow in order to render the subtle nuances of character and mood of persons or of whole scenes. In his later work, the conflicts of light and dark are reconciled to produce a quiet mood of tranquil meditation. An illuminating selfportrait: In a late Rembrandt selfportrait, light shines from the upper left to bathe the subject's face in soft light, leaving the lower part of his body in shadow. The portrait's dignity and strength is also the result

Rembrandt van Rijn Self-Portraitca. 1659-1660 oil on canvas 3 ft. 8 3/4 in. x 3 ft. 1 in.

Compassion memorably etched: Rembrandt's etching of Christ with the Sick around Him, Receiving the Children (Hundred Guilder Print) is suffused with a deep and abiding piety.

Rembrandt van Rijn Christ with the Sick around Him, Receiving the Children (Hundred Guilder Print)ca. 1649 etching 11 x 15 1/4 in.

At ease in front of an easel: Judith Leyster's Self-Portrait is imbued with a sense of casual self-assurance and relaxed spontaneity.

Judith Leyster Self-Portraitca. 1630 oil on canvas 2 ft. 5 3/8 in. x 2 ft. 1 5/8 in.

Reclaiming the Land from the Sea: The Dutch urban mercantile public avidly collected paintingslandscapes, interior scenes, and still lifes showing their own daily lives and everyday world. In a country that had reclaimed much of its land from the sea, landscape scenes were especially popular. A landscape of Do