APUSH: Commonly Appearing Terms

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Commonly Appearing Terms 1607-1763Indentured Servants People who came to America and was placed under contract to work for another over a period of time, especially during the 17th and 19th centuries (ex. redemptioners, victims of religious or political persecution, people kidnapped, convicts and paupers) Proprietary, Royal, Charter Colonies Proprietary colony: any of certain colonies, as Maryland and Pennsylvania, that were granted to an individual group by the British crown and that were granted full rights of self-government Royal colony: a colony, as New York, administered by a royal governor and council appointed by the British crown, and having a representative assembly elected by the people Charter colony: a colony, as Virginia, Massachusetts, Connecticut, or Rhode Island, chartered to an individual, trading company, etc., by the British crown Pilgrims/Separatists Pilgrims: a person who journeys, esp. a long distance, to some sacred place as an act of religious devotion Separatists: a person who separates, withdraws, or secedes, as from an established church Trade and Navigation Acts A series of laws which restricted the use of foreign shipping for trade between England and its colonies, started in 1651 Peter Zenger trial He printed a document that criticized William Cosby, the Governor of New York; shortly afterwards, Cosby had Zenger arrested on a charge of seditious libel; later found innocent of the seditious libel House of Burgesses The elected lower house in the legislative assembly in the New Worldestablished in the Colony of Virginia in 1619 Mayflower Compact The first governing document of Plymouth Colony, written by the colonists King Phillip's War An armed conflict between Native American inhabitants of present-day southern New England and English colonists and their Native American allies from 16751676. Anne Hutchinson A pioneer settler in Massachusetts, Rhode Island and New Netherlands and the unauthorized minister of a dissident church discussion group Held Bible meetings for women that soon had great appeal to men as well; eventually, she went beyond Bible study to proclaim her own theological interpretations of sermons, some of which offended the colony leadership; major controversy ensued, and after a trial before a jury of officials and clergy, she was banished from her colony Roger Williams An English theologian, a notable proponent of religious toleration and the separation of church and state and an advocate for fair dealings with Native Americans. In 1644, he received a charter creating the colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, named for the principal island in Narragansett Bay and the Providence settlement which provided a refuge for religious minorities. Credited for originating either the first or second Baptist church established in America, which he is known to have left soon afterwards, exclaiming, "God is too large to be housed under one roof." George Whitefield An Anglican itinerant minister who helped spread the Great Awakening in Great Britain and, especially, in the British North American colonies. His ministry had tremendous impact on American ideology William Bradford Plymouth Governor; a pilgrim that lived in a north colony called Plymouth Rock in 1620. He was chosen governor 30 times. He also conducted experiments of living in the wilderness and wrote about them; well known for "Of Plymouth Plantation" Great Puritan Migration When any Puritans immigrated to North America in the 1620-1640s because they believed that the Church of England was beyond reform Great Awakening 1730s-1740s Started by John Edwards to bring people back to the church; revitalized American religion, first spontaneous mass movement of Americans, encouraged missionary work among Indians and blacks, founding of "new light" learning centers French and Indian War (Seven Year's War or War of the Conquest) 1754-1763 The fourth such colonial war between the nations of France and Great Britain, resulting in the British conquest of Canada and French Louisiana from France and Florida from Spain France's colonial presence north of the Caribbean was reduced to the tiny islands of Saint Pierre and Miquelon, confirming Britain's position as the dominant colonial power in North America

New England Confederation Political and military alliance of the British colonies of Massachusetts, Plymouth, Connecticut, and New Haven established May 19, 1643, its primary purpose was to unite the Puritan colonies against theNative Americans Thomas Hobbes An English philosopher, remembered today for his work on political philosophy. His 1651 book Leviathan established the foundation for most of Western political philosophy from the perspective of social contract theory John Locke An English physician and philosopher regarded as one of the most influential of Enlightenment thinkers Locke's theory of mind is often cited as the origin of modern conceptions of identity and the self Locke was the first to define the self through a continuity of consciousness. He postulated that the mind was a blank slate or tabula rasa Freedom of Conscience The freedom of an individual to hold or consider a fact, viewpoint, or thought, independent of others' viewpoints Mercantilism Where nations seek to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by establishing a favorable balance of trade (exporting more than you import) Iroquois Confederacy The Iroquois, also known as the Haudenosaunee or the "People of the Longhouse", are an indigenous people of North America. In the 16th century or earlier, the Iroquois came together in an association known as the Iroquois League Jonathan Edwards Hellfire and brimstone method of preaching, preached complete dependence on God's grace Bacon's Rebellion In 1676, Bacon, a young planter led a rebellion against people who were friendly to the Indians. in the process he torched Jamestown, Virginia and was murdered by Indians Headright System Way to attract immigrants; gave 50 acres of land to anyone who paid their way and/or any plantation owner that paid an immigrants way; mainly a system in the southern colonies Halfway Covenant A Puritan church document In 1662, the Halfway Covenant allowed partial membership rights to persons not yet converted into the Puritan church; it lessened the difference between the "elect" members of the church from the regular members; women soon made up a larger portion of Puritan congregations Harvard College 1636 - College at Cambridge, the intellectual center of New England, mainly to make better Christians Salutary Neglect An undocumented, though long standing British policy of avoiding strict enforcement of parliamentary laws, meant to keep the American colonies obedient to Great Britain Salem Witch Trials A series of hearings before local magistrates followed by county court trials to prosecute people accused of witchcraft in Essex, Suffolk, and Middlesex counties of colonial Massachusetts, between February 1692 and May 1693 Middle Passage Middle segment of the forced journey that slaves made from Africa to America throughout the 1600's; it consisted of the dangerous trip across the Atlantic Ocean; many slaves died on this segment of the journey Albany Plan Proposed by Benjamin Franklin at the Albany Congress in 1754 in Albany, New York It was an early attempt at forming a union of the colonies "under one government as far as might be necessary for defense and other general important purposes" during the French and Indian War Franklin's plan of union was one of several put forth by various delegates of the Albany Congress City on the Hill A phrase derived from the metaphor of Salt and Light in the Sermon on the Mount of Jesus given in the Gospel of Matthew this phrase entered the American lexicon early in its history, with John Winthrop's sermon "A Modell of Christian Charity" (sic), given in 1630. Winthrop warned the Puritan colonists of New England who were to found the Massachusetts Bay Colony that their new community would be a "city upon a hill," watched by the world Phyllis Wheatly Poet; slave girl brought to Boston at age 8 and then England at age 12, no formal education and published book of poetry James Oglethorpe Founded Georgia in 1733 as a haven for people in debt because of his interest for reform and almost single-handedly kept Georgia afloat

William Penn An English founder and "Absolute Proprietor" of the Province of Pennsylvania, the English North American colony and the future U.S. State of Pennsylvania. He was known as an early champion of democracy and religious freedom and famous for his good relations and his treaties with the Lenape Indians. Under his direction, Philadelphia was planned and developed

1763-1775Proclamation of 1763 Issued October 7, 1763, by King George III following Great Britain's acquisition of French territory in North America after the end of the French and Indian War. The purpose of the proclamation was to organize Great Britain's new North American empire and to stabilize relations with Native North Americans through regulation of trade, settlement, and land purchases on the western frontier Thomas Paine/Common Sense/Crisis Papers Thomas Paine published the pamphlet Common Sense in 1776 where he urged America to stop fighting a war of inconsistency. In it he also stated that nowhere in the universe did a smaller body control a larger one. It pointed to all the advantages America would gain if it were independent such as it would allow free trade and foreign aid and it could give equal social and economic opportunities to all. Almost 500,000 copies were sold and this pamphlet helped sway America Crisis Papers were pamphlets written by Thomas Paine that encouraged Americans not to be summer soldiers but sunshine patriots Stamp Act Congress A meeting in the building that would become Federal Hall in New York City on October 19, 1765 consisting of delegates from 9