Applied and Industrial Microbiology Microbiology 2314

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Applied and Industrial Microbiology Microbiology 2314 Slide 2 Early Methods Smoking - Dries the Food - Enhances the Flavor - Beef, Ham, Bacon, Fish - Adds Formadehyde Slide 3 Ham's substantial, ham is fat Ham is firm and sound. Ham's what God was getting at When He made pigs so round ----- Roy Blount Jr. Slide 4 Early Methods Drying/Dessication/Dehydration - Sun / Wind / Ovens - Meat and Fruit Slide 5 Early Methods Salting - Day-Salting and Pickling - Rock Salt / Sea Salt / Spiced Salt - Cheese / Olives / Hams / Eggs Slide 6 Old recipe for Salt Curing Ham, this method can preserve a Ham for years. For a 20 lb. ham: o3 Tablespoons Brown Sugar o2 Tablespoons Black Pepper o1 Teaspoon Red Pepper o2 Cups Salt Mix the ingredients together and rub onto the skin-on ham, paying special attention to the hock. Then the ham is wrapped in paper, then wrapped in cloth, then placed in a cloth bag and hung with the hock down. The ham is hung in a well ventilated, dark and secure building. The ham "drips" for about two months and is ready to eat in about 6 to 9 months and is edible for 3 to 4 years. Hams continued to stay edible right up until they are completely dried out. Slide 7 Where Else Has Salting Been Used? Slide 8 Slide 9 Slide 10 Mummification is the preservation of a body, either animal or human. The Egyptian mummies were deliberately made by drying the body. By eliminating moisture, you have eliminated the source of decay. They dried the body by using a salt mixture called natron. Natron is a natural substance that is found in abundance along the Nile river. Natron is made up of four salts: sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, sodium chloride, and sodium sulfate. The sodium carbonate works as a drying agent, drawing the water out of the body. At the same time the bicarbonate, when subjected to moisture, increases the pH that creates a hostile environment for bacteria. The Egyptian climate lent itself well to the mummification process, being both very hot and dry. Slide 11 Early Methods Honey - Preserving Fruit - Healing - High Sugar Content Slide 12 HISTORY: Besides being used as food, it was used as medicine -- more than half remedies prescribed by Egyptian doctors contained honey. Ancient Egyptians, Greeks, and Romans spread honey on wounds to hasten their healing -- So, did German Field Medical personnel during World War I. Even as Late as 1970 in England, a surgeon announced he was using honey on open wounds after surgery -- and had fewer bacterial infections than similar wounds treated with antibiotics. Honey proved to be an effective disinfectant; It hastened healing; and bacteria did not develop resistance to it, as often happens with antibiotics. Slide 13 Early Methods Yogurt and Cheese Making to Preserve Milk - Easier to Transport - Lengthen Time Possible to Use Slide 14 A Legend Legend tells that yoghurt was born on the slopes of Mount Elbrus in the Caucasus range of mountains, between the Black and Caspian seas. On the hot southern slopes a pitcher of milk belonging to a Turkish nomad was contaminated by a mixture of organisms that thrived in the warm milk (40 - 45c). The result was what the Turks call "yogurut". The name "yogurut" was supposedly introduced in the 8th century and was changed in the 11th century to the current version "Yoghurt". Legend suggests that Yoghurt can act as a preservative against human ageing, however no scientific evidence actually supports this theory. Undoubtedly a regular intake of the organisms found in yoghurt can have a beneficial affect to the digestive tract. Slide 15 Early Methods Cooling - Collection of Snow and Ice - Caves / Cellars - Water Wells Slide 16 Today We Use Some of the Same Methods and Some New Ones Industrial Food Canning Commercial Sterilization 1. Steam Under Pressure / Retort 2. Minimum Temperature to Reduces Clostridium botulinum 3. 12 D Treatment / Reduces by 12 Logarithmic Cycles 4. 10 12 1 Slide 17 Industrial Food Canning Commercial Sterilization 1. Endospores of Thermophiles can Survive 2. Storage > 45 C / Thermophiles 3. Gas Production / Swelling 4. No Gas / Flat Sour Spoilage 5. Mesophilic Bacteria / Improper Heating 6. Acidic Foods / 100 C / Survivors Cant Stand the Low pH Slide 18 Picture of Retort Used in Commercial Sterilization and uses Steam Under Pressure Slide 19 Keeping Cans Sealed Can Help Keep Foods Safe Slide 20 Aseptic Packaging Pre-sterilized materials are assembled into packages and aseptically filled with heat-sterilized liquid foods. Slide 21 Radiation and Industrial Food Preservation Slide 22 Radiation Gamma Radiation 1. Used to Sterilize Food 2. Kill Insects & Parasitic Worms 3. Prevent Sprouting of Fruits and Vegetables Slide 23 Slide 24 Radiation Treatment of Foods Wheat Flour White Potatoes Pork Fruit Vegetables Spices Vegetable Seasonings Poultry Frozen Meat Slide 25 Case Study Decatur, Georgia In June 1988, a capsule of radioactive cesium-137-- a waste product from nuclear weapons production-- sprung a leak at a Radiation Sterilizers plant near Atlanta. Though the leak was contained to the site, two of the three exposed workers spread radioactivity to their cars and homes. And an estimated 70,000 milk cartons, contact lens solution boxes and other containers were shipped out after they were splashed with radioactive water. Only about 900 of the contaminated containers were recalled. The ensuing taxpayer-funded cleanup cost more than $30 million, after which a government report concluded that "the public health and safety could have been compromised." Slide 26 Case Study Dover, NJ In June 1986, two senior executives of Palo Alto, CA-based International Neutronics were indicted on federal charges of conspiracy, mail fraud and wire fraud in connection with an October 1982 spill of 600 gallons of water contaminated by radioactive cobalt- 60. After a pump malfunctioned, workers were instructed to pour the radioactive water down a shower drain that emptied into the public sewer system. Workers were also ordered to wear their radiation- detection "badges" in such a way to falsify radiation levels. In the words of a federal prosecutor, company executives "bamboozled" Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) inspectors by delaying an inspection of the facility, where food, gems, chemicals and medical supplies were irradiated. A $2 million cleanup included the cost to dispose of radioactive material at a nuclear waste dump in South Carolina. Company vice president Eugene O'Sullivan, a former member of the U.S. Atomic Energy Commission, was convicted of conspiracy and fraud in October 1986. Slide 27 Cheese forms when milk protein casein curdles because of action by lactic acid bacteria or the enzyme rennin Slide 28 Cheese is the curd separated from the liquid portion of milk, called whey. Slide 29 Other Dairy Products 1.Butter 2.Buttermilk 3.Sour Cream 4.Yogurt Slide 30 Microbial Fermentations Sugars in bread dough are fermented by yeast to ethanol and carbon dioxide; the carbon dioxide causes the bread to rise. Sauerkraut, pickles, olives, and soy sauce are products of microbial fermentations Slide 31 Alcoholic Fermentations Carbohydrates are Fermented by Yeasts to Produce Ethanol Slide 32 Industrial Microbiology Biotechnology - The production of commercial products through the use of living organisms. Slide 33 Industrial Fermentations Utilize bioreactors which control aeration, pH, and temperature. Slide 34 Industrial Products Amino Acids in Food and Medicine Enzymes Used in Foods and Medicines Vitamins Used as Food Supplements Vaccines / Antibiotics / Steroids Ore Recovery / Uranium and Copper Yeasts / Wine and Bread Agricultural Microbes Slide 35 FOODMICROBE(S) CoffeeA bacteria and a yeast Cassave (Gari)A bacteria and a mold Cassave: (Peujeum)Several molds Corn (Kenkey)A couple of molds, a yeast and some bacteria Corn (Ogi)A couple of bacteria and a yeast Soybeans (Miso)A mold and a yeast Soy SauceMolds, yeast and bacteria mixture Peanuts (Ontjom)A mold Rotted Shark Meat Buried in Ground Until Ready (Icelandic treat) OTHER COMMON FERMENTED FOODS Slide 36 Alternative Energy Sources Biomass Organic waste that can be converted by microorganisms into alternative fuels Bioconversion The process of converting microorganisms into alternative fuels Slide 37 Methane Production Slide 38 Bartertown is powered by an energy source that is, in its own way, a compelling argument against nuclear war: In chambers beneath Bartertown, countless pigs live and eat and defecate, and from their waste products, Turner's soldiers generate methane gas. Slide 39 Ethanol Slide 40 Quick Facts The level of interest in using alcohol as a motor fuel has followed cycles of fuel shortages and/or low feed-grain prices. Alcohols burn more completely, thus increasing combustion efficiency. Advantages of mixing alcohol with gasoline are that alcohol tends to increase the octane rating and reduce carbon monoxide emissions. Alcohols may corrode certain materials used in engines. Slide 41 Slide 42 Lift Station The lift stations bring the initial sewage from Edmond wastewater lines into the plant. Bar Screen The bar screens remove large debris such as rags, sticks, plastics, roots, etc. Grit Chamber The function of a grit chamber is to capture inorganic solids such as dirt and sand that cause wear to pumps and reduce space in process tanks. Distribution Chamber Screw Pump This return sludge structure provides sludge pumping, flow rate control to primary oxidation ditch process, and mixing point for raw sewage and return sludge, i.e. Return Activated Sludge. Slide 43 Oxidation Ditches Provide mixing, oxygen transfer and retention time for microorganisms to convert organics to more stable compounds creating an activated sludge mixed liquor. Clarifiers Provide detention time for activated sludge to settle and be drawn off gradually and returned to be mixed with incoming raw sewage, known as R