process A relatively large projection or prominent bump.
articulation The region where adjacent bones contact each other-a joint .
articular process A projection that contacts an adjacent bone.
eminence A relatively small projection or bump.
tuberosity A projection or bump with a roughened surface.
tubercle A projection or bump with a roughened surface, generally smaller than a
trochanter One of two specific tuberosities located on the femur .
spine A relatively long, thin projection or bump.
suture Articulation between cranial bones.
malleolus One of two specific protuberances of bones in the ankle .
condyle A large, rounded articular process.
epicondyle A projection near to a condyle but not part of the joint.
line , ridge A long, thin projection, often with a rough surface.
crest A prominent ridge.
facet A small, smooth articular surface.
foramen An opening through a bone.
fossa A broad, shallow depressed area.
canal A long, tunnel-like foramen, usually a passage for notable nerves or blood
meatus A short canal.
sinus A cavity within a cranial bone.
Attach upper limbs to axial
Weak but movable joint
girdle of a
1. Clavicle: articulates w/ sternum, scapulas acromion
Acromion: spine process articulatg clavicle
Glenoid fossa (cavity): articulate w/humerus
Coracoid process: muscle attach
3 fossa: muscle attach
Free Upper Extremities
1. Humerus: articulates P w/
scapula; D w/ulna&radius
Proximal end: head
Deltoid tuberosity: mid-bone for
Capitulum: articulates w/radius
Trochlea: articulates w/ ulna
Olecranon/coronoid fossa: artclts
Epicondyles: forearm muscles
2. Ulna: medial (little finger)
Olecranon process: point of elbow
Trochlear (semilunar) notch: fits w/humerus
Coronoid process: grips humerus
Head/styloid process: distal
3. Radius: lateral (thumb)
Head: articulates w/humerus
Radial tuberosity: attach for biceps
4. Carpals: eight bones (Super large trains pull tiny trains carefully home)
5. Metacarpals: palms; heads=knuckles; sesamoids
6. Phalanges: 3 bones-fingers; 2-thumb
Pelvic Girdle: Attach lower limbs to axial
1. Coxae (two): articulates P w/sacrum (ring of bones)
Ilium (S); Pubis (I, A); Ischium (I, P) form coxa
Pubic Symphysis: where coxals join
Acetabulum: hip socket-articulates femur
Iliac crest: superior margin
Obturator Foramen: hole in coxal (ischium)
Pelvimetry: measurement of inlet/outlet of
birth canal (affects natural/caesarian)
Fetopelvic disproportion is any clinically
significant mismatch between the size
or shape of the presenting part of the
fetus and the size or shape of the
maternal pelvis and soft tissue.
In the case of absolute disproportion, no
amount of fetal head re-shaping will
allow for unassisted vaginal delivery,
and it may not allow for a vaginal
delivery at all.
Free Lower Extremeties
1. Femur: thigh bone; longest, heaviest
Curves medially so knee near center of gravity
Curves more in female (broader pelvis)
Fovea Capitis: BVs
Neck: fractures in elderly
2. Patella: kneecap
3. Tibia: medial shinbone; bears most of weight
Lateral/Medial Condyles: articulate femur
Tibial tuberosity: muscle attachment
Medial Malleolus: prominence; forms socket
articulating w/talus (ankle)
4. Fibula: lateral
Head: articulates tibia
Lateral Malleolus: prominence; forms socket
articulating w/talus (ankle)
5. Tarsals: seven bones (sole of foot)
Talus: ankle bone articulating w/tibia/fibula
Calcaneus: largest/strongest; heel
6. Metatarsals: five bones (1st is thicker)
7. Phalanges: same number as fingers
Arches of foot (2): tarsals/metatarsals form
Ligaments connect not rigid (may fall)
Longitude & Traverse
Articulation: joint where 2 or more bones meet
Fibrous; no cavity
A. Sutures: skull
B. Syndesmoses: ligaments between bones
of a newborn
with fontanels SYNDESMOSES
Cartilage; no cavity (pubic symphysis)
1) Articular cartilage: smooth
2) Cavity: w/synovial fluid (nourishes/lubricates)
3) Articular capsule: encloses cavity
4) Reinforcing ligaments: inner/outer strength
5) Bursae: fluid filled pads/areas that rub
1) Hinge: 1 axis; elbow
2) Ellipsoid: multiple axis; wrist
3) Saddle: 2 axis; metacarpals/thumb
4) Pivot: rotation; radius/ulna
5) Plane/gliding: slight; carpals/tarsals
6) Ball & Socket: multiple axis; coxa/femur
1) Pronation (palm down)/supination (palm up)
2) Flexion (bend)/extension (straighten)
3) Abduction (away)/adduction (together)
4) Opposition (thumb to digits)/reposition