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Appendicular Skeleton

Appendicular Skeleton - Faribaultmail.faribault.k12.mn.us/~Laura_Childs/S01B3E075.4/Chapter 6... · Appendicular Skeleton. process A relatively large projection or prominent bump

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Text of Appendicular Skeleton - Faribaultmail.faribault.k12.mn.us/~Laura_Childs/S01B3E075.4/Chapter 6... ·...

  • Appendicular Skeleton

  • process A relatively large projection or prominent bump.

    articulation The region where adjacent bones contact each other-a joint .

    articular process A projection that contacts an adjacent bone.

    eminence A relatively small projection or bump.

    tuberosity A projection or bump with a roughened surface.

    tubercle A projection or bump with a roughened surface, generally smaller than a


    trochanter One of two specific tuberosities located on the femur .

    spine A relatively long, thin projection or bump.

    suture Articulation between cranial bones.

    malleolus One of two specific protuberances of bones in the ankle .

    condyle A large, rounded articular process.

    epicondyle A projection near to a condyle but not part of the joint.

    line , ridge A long, thin projection, often with a rough surface.

    crest A prominent ridge.

    facet A small, smooth articular surface.

    foramen An opening through a bone.

    fossa A broad, shallow depressed area.

    canal A long, tunnel-like foramen, usually a passage for notable nerves or blood


    meatus A short canal.

    sinus A cavity within a cranial bone.

    Bone Terminology

  • Pectoral Girdle

    Attach upper limbs to axial

    Weak but movable joint


    girdle of a


  • 1. Clavicle: articulates w/ sternum, scapulas acromion

  • 2. Scapula

    Spine posterior

    Acromion: spine process articulatg clavicle

    Glenoid fossa (cavity): articulate w/humerus

    Coracoid process: muscle attach

    3 fossa: muscle attach

  • Free Upper Extremities

  • 1. Humerus: articulates P w/

    scapula; D w/ulna&radius

    Proximal end: head

    Greater/lesser tubercle:

    muscle attachmt

    Deltoid tuberosity: mid-bone for


    Capitulum: articulates w/radius

    Trochlea: articulates w/ ulna

    Olecranon/coronoid fossa: artclts

    ulna processes

    Epicondyles: forearm muscles


  • 2. Ulna: medial (little finger)

    Olecranon process: point of elbow

    Trochlear (semilunar) notch: fits w/humerus

    Coronoid process: grips humerus

    Head/styloid process: distal

  • 3. Radius: lateral (thumb)

    Head: articulates w/humerus

    Radial tuberosity: attach for biceps

    Styloid process


  • 4. Carpals: eight bones (Super large trains pull tiny trains carefully home)

  • 5. Metacarpals: palms; heads=knuckles; sesamoids

    6. Phalanges: 3 bones-fingers; 2-thumb

  • Pelvic Girdle: Attach lower limbs to axial

    1. Coxae (two): articulates P w/sacrum (ring of bones)

    Ilium (S); Pubis (I, A); Ischium (I, P) form coxa

  • Pubic Symphysis: where coxals join

    Acetabulum: hip socket-articulates femur

    Iliac crest: superior margin

    Obturator Foramen: hole in coxal (ischium)

  • Pelvimetry: measurement of inlet/outlet of

    birth canal (affects natural/caesarian)

    Fetopelvic disproportion is any clinically

    significant mismatch between the size

    or shape of the presenting part of the

    fetus and the size or shape of the

    maternal pelvis and soft tissue.

    In the case of absolute disproportion, no

    amount of fetal head re-shaping will

    allow for unassisted vaginal delivery,

    and it may not allow for a vaginal

    delivery at all.

    Clinical Pelvimetry


  • Free Lower Extremeties

  • 1. Femur: thigh bone; longest, heaviest

    Curves medially so knee near center of gravity

    Curves more in female (broader pelvis)

    Head: w/acetabulum

    Fovea Capitis: BVs

    Neck: fractures in elderly

    Greater/lesser Trochanter:

    muscle attachment

    Lateral/Medial Condyles:

    articulate w/tibia

  • 2. Patella: kneecap

  • 3. Tibia: medial shinbone; bears most of weight

    Lateral/Medial Condyles: articulate femur

    Tibial tuberosity: muscle attachment

    Medial Malleolus: prominence; forms socket

    articulating w/talus (ankle)

  • 4. Fibula: lateral

    Head: articulates tibia

    Lateral Malleolus: prominence; forms socket

    articulating w/talus (ankle)

  • 5. Tarsals: seven bones (sole of foot)

    Talus: ankle bone articulating w/tibia/fibula

    Calcaneus: largest/strongest; heel

    6. Metatarsals: five bones (1st is thicker)

    7. Phalanges: same number as fingers

  • Arches of foot (2): tarsals/metatarsals form

    Ligaments connect not rigid (may fall)

    Longitude & Traverse

  • Articulation: joint where 2 or more bones meet

    1. Synarthrosis:


    Fibrous; no cavity

    A. Sutures: skull

    B. Syndesmoses: ligaments between bones


    of a newborn

    with fontanels SYNDESMOSES

  • 2. Amphiarthrosis

    slightly movable

    Cartilage; no cavity (pubic symphysis)

  • 3. Diarthrosis:

    Freely movable

    Synovial Joint

    A. Features:

    1) Articular cartilage: smooth

    2) Cavity: w/synovial fluid (nourishes/lubricates)

    3) Articular capsule: encloses cavity

    4) Reinforcing ligaments: inner/outer strength

    5) Bursae: fluid filled pads/areas that rub

  • B. Types:

    1) Hinge: 1 axis; elbow

    2) Ellipsoid: multiple axis; wrist

    3) Saddle: 2 axis; metacarpals/thumb

    4) Pivot: rotation; radius/ulna

    5) Plane/gliding: slight; carpals/tarsals

    6) Ball & Socket: multiple axis; coxa/femur

  • C. Movements:

    1) Pronation (palm down)/supination (palm up)

    2) Flexion (bend)/extension (straighten)

    3) Abduction (away)/adduction (together)

    4) Opposition (thumb to digits)/reposition