APA Part 2 – Reference Citations APA Citing: Part 1 – Text Citations Video: 15 min.

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<ul><li><p>APA Part 2 Reference Citations</p><p> APA Citing: Part 1 Text Citations Video: 15 min. </p></li><li><p>APA ResourcesPublication Manual of the American Psychological Association (6th ed.)</p><p>APA help / tutorials:APA Library Guide see video tutorials http://nova.campusguides.com/apaAPAs Style site and blog: http://www.apastyle.org/ and http://blog.apastyle.org/APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2012) PDF file</p></li><li><p>When to CiteIdeas, theories, or research that directly influenced your work. Key background information, support or dispute your theory, or offer critical definitions or data. Document all facts and figures that are not common knowledge. For class assignments, use 1 or 2 of most representative sources for each key point. Literature reviews are more exhaustive .</p><p>See APA (6th ed.), p. 169</p></li><li><p>Text and Reference CitationsTwo types of citations -text citations and reference citations</p></li><li><p>Direct QuotesText citation (paraphrased): McPherson (2012) raised issues about motivation in reading. Reference citation -- used in reference list: McPherson, K. (2012). Harry Potter and the goblet of motivation. Teacher Librarian, 34(4), 71. doi: 10.1037/0002-9432.76.4.482Text citation with direct quote: McPherson (2012) coined the phrase goblet of motivation (p. 71). </p></li><li><p>Citing Resources in TextResearch (Fink, 2007) confirmed the results of cloning. The website did not support the data (Wienhorst, n.d.).</p><p>A couple of studies (Gehring &amp; Eifrig, 1976; Skinner, 1956) found.... [in alphabetical order]</p><p>Several comments (Obama, B., 2011; Obama, M, 2012; Smith &amp; Jones, 2009a, 2009b)See APA manual, pp. 176-178. Citing Resources in Text</p></li><li><p>Citing Resources in TextResearch (Fink, 2007) confirmed the results of cloning. The website did not support the data (Wienhorst, n.d.).</p><p>A couple of studies (Gehring &amp; Eifrig, 1976; Skinner, 1956) found.... [in alphabetical order]</p><p>Several comments (Obama, B., 2011; Obama, M, 2012; Smith &amp; Jones, 2009a, 2009b)See APA manual, pp. 176-178. Citing Resources in Text</p></li><li><p>Citing Resources in TextResearch (Fink, 2007) confirmed the results of cloning. The website did not support the data (Wienhorst, n.d.).</p><p>A couple of studies (Gehring &amp; Eifrig, 1976; Skinner, 1956) found.... [in alphabetical order]</p><p>Several comments (Obama, B., 2011; Obama, M, 2012; Smith &amp; Jones, 2009a, 2009b)See APA manual, pp. 176-178. Citing Resources in Text</p></li><li><p>Citing Resources in TextResearch (Fink, 2007) confirmed the results of cloning. The website did not support the data (Wienhorst, n.d.).</p><p>A couple of studies (Gehring &amp; Eifrig, 1976; Skinner, 1956) found.... [in alphabetical order]</p><p>Several comments (Obama, B., 2011; Obama, M, 2012; Smith &amp; Jones, 2009a, 2009b)See APA manual, pp. 176-178. Citing Resources in Text</p></li><li><p>When to Use Ampersands and CommasStating vs. citing Quinlan and Bardeen (2007) published a definitive study on information literacy in higher education.but Information literacy needs to be integrated into the curriculum (Quinlan &amp; Bardeen, 2007).</p></li><li><p>Stating vs. citing Quinlan and Bardeen (2007) published a definitive study on information literacy in higher education.but Information literacy needs to be integrated into the curriculum (Quinlan &amp; Bardeen, 2007).</p><p>Three or more authors cited, use commas</p><p> Researchers (Creswell, Borg, &amp; Allsop, 2004) have found that this is true.</p><p> Creswell, Borg, and Allsop (2004) found that this is true. Ampersands and Commas in Citations</p></li><li><p>Differences in Text vs. Reference ListTunon and Ramirez (2012) found that...</p><p> in the study (Tunon &amp; Ramirez, 2012).</p><p>Tunon, J., &amp; Ramirez, L. (2012). ABD or EdD? Journal of Academic Librarianship, 10(2), 23-43.See APA manual, pp. 177, .</p></li><li><p>Six or More Authors in Text vs. Reference ListText citation for six or more authors: Wienhorst et al. (2010) found that . </p><p>Reference citation with more than seven authors: Wienhorst, S., Jones, R. E., Smith, T., Stonebraker, W., Schaefer, A., Johnson, M., . . . Allsop, S. (2010). What...</p><p>See APA manual, pp. 177, 184, 198.List the first six authors and last author. Separate with ellipses.</p></li><li><p>Three to Five AuthorsCitations in text:Quinlan, Jones, Byron, and Montgomery (2008) statedQuinlan et al. (2008) observed (et al. is used after first use when there are three or more authors) Parenthetical citations in text:(Quinlan, Jones, Byron, &amp; Montgomery, 2008) (Quinlan et al., 2008) </p><p>One work by six or more authors:Wienhorst et al. (2009)(Wienhorst et al., 2009)</p><p>See APA manual, p. 177Always use et al. for six or more authors for in-text citations.</p></li><li><p>In another case, Scanlon, Gallego, Duran, and Reyes (2005) found that the results should be based on assumptions that individuals are capable of self-directed and self-initiated learning (Methods section, para. 7).</p><p>The qualitative research methods discussed by Durango were challenged by Bambang and Totonumu (Pival, Falcao, &amp; Quinlan, 2009, Problems with Qualitative Research, para. 5).</p><p>It is reassuring to believe that circumstances are against you (Silva, 2007, Chapter 2, Specious Barrier 1 section, para. 2).Text Cites of Electronic ResourcesSee APA (6th ed.), p. 172, APA Style Guide (2012), p. 17.Use name of section.Use shortened section title in quotation marks. </p></li><li><p>Text Cites of Electronic ResourcesIn another case, Scanlon, Gallego, Duran, and Reyes (2005) found that the results should be based on assumptions that individuals are capable of self-directed and self-initiated learning (Methods section, para. 7).</p><p>The qualitative research methods discussed by Durango were challenged by Bambang and Totonumu (Pival, Falcao, &amp; Quinlan, 2009, Problems with Qualitative Research, para. 5).See APA (6th ed.), p. 172, APA Style Guide (2012), p. 17.Use name of section.Use shortened section title in quotation marks. In another case, Scanlon, Gallego, Duran, and Reyes (2005) found that the results should be based on assumptions that individuals are capable of self-directed and self-initiated learning (Methods section, para. 7).</p><p>The qualitative research methods discussed by Durango were challenged by Bambang and Totonumu (Pival, Falcao, &amp; Quinlan, 2009, Problems with Qualitative Research, para. 5).</p><p>It is reassuring to believe that circumstances are against you (Silva, 2007, Chapter 2, Specious Barrier 1 section, para. 2).</p></li><li><p>Groups as AuthorsCitations in text:The American Psychological Association (APA) observed</p><p>American Psychological Association [APA] (2009) stated Parenthetical citations in text:(American Psychological Association [APA], 2009) NOTE: Use (APA, 2009) thereafter.</p><p>See APA manual, p. 176Use parentheses.Must use acronym thereafter.</p></li><li><p>No Back-t0-Back ParenthesesCitations in text:The American Psychological Association (APA) observed</p><p>American Psychological Association [APA] (2009) stated Parenthetical citations in text:(American Psychological Association [APA], 2009) NOTE: Use (APA, 2009) thereafter.See APA manual, p. 176</p></li><li><p>Secondary Sources Freuds theory of the id, ego, and superego (as cited in Dickerson, 2012) </p><p>Dickerson, L. (2012). Freudian concepts of id, ego and superego applied to chemical and other addictions. New York, NY: Universe.</p><p>Text citation:List the primary source in the reference list entry:</p></li><li><p>Personal Communications: Only Cite in the Text (L. Acosta, personal communication, June 15, 2012)</p><p> Interviews gathered in an ethnography where the names of participants are not revealed Handouts not posted on website or available elsewhere Lectures that cannot be retrieved by other researchers (Blackboard, WebCT, Desire2Learn, Moodle, etc.) Restricted emails and not visible to the entire group Personal conversations Personal letters that are not accessible in an archive</p></li><li><p>Entire Websites CitedSee the data sets provided by the NCES (http://nces.ed.gov). President Obama has used Twitter (http://www.twitter .com/barackobama) and Facebook (http://www.facebook.com/barackobama) effectively in both the 2008 and 2012 campaigns. </p><p>Entire websites are not included in the reference list. </p><p>The APA Style Guide to Electronic References (2012) is a useful source for updated information on APA formatting or look at the main page on the APA Library Guide (http://nova.campusguides .com/apa </p></li><li><p>Direct Quotes Signed into law in January 2002 by President George W. Bush, the No Child Let Behind (NCLB) Act signaled the nations most sweeping education reform of federal education policy in decades. NCLB laid the groundwork for education reforms and the presidents attempt to strengthen Americas education system (Smith, 2008, p. 212).Direct quoteAPA manual, pp. 170-171Paraphrasing </p></li><li><p>Paraphrasing Signed into law in January 2002 by President George W. Bush, the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act signaled the nations most sweeping education reform of federal education policy in decades. NCLB laid the groundwork for education reforms and the presidents attempt to strengthen Americas education system (Smith, 2008, p. 212). When the No Child Left Behind (NCLB) Act was signed into law in January of 2002 by President Bush, the law provided the most all-encompassing reform in education the United States in decades and provided a foundation for strengthening educational policy at the national level for years to come (Smith, 2008). Direct quoteParaphrasedAPA manual, pp. 170-171</p></li><li><p>Provide Page Number with Direct Quote victims of cyberterrorism (Windhorst, 2004, p. 237). Krankenstein (2006) reported that "empirical research verified compliance" (p. 48). </p><p>Lynch (2007) stated, The findings are not valid (p. 22) but later maintained that other studies reached different conclusions.</p><p> was defined as having leadership qualities (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 2001, p. 346). See APA, Chapter 6, p. 171-173</p><p>When using a direct quote, provide the page #:</p></li><li><p>When Page Number Is Separated from the Author/Date victims of cyberterrorism (Windhorst, 2004, p. 237). Krankenstein (2006) reported that "empirical research verified compliance" (p. 48). </p><p>Lynch (2007) stated, The findings are not valid (p. 22) but later maintained that other studies reached different conclusions.</p><p> was defined as having leadership qualities (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 2001, p. 346). See APA, Chapter 6, p. 171-173</p><p>Page number can be separated from author/date:</p></li><li><p>Comma Used After Clauses victims of cyberterrorism (Windhorst, 2004, p. 237). Krankenstein (2006) reported that "empirical research verified compliance" (p. 48). </p><p>Although Lynch (2007) stated, The findings are not entirely valid (p. 22), he later argued that other studies reached different conclusions.</p><p> was defined as having leadership qualities (Merriam-Webster's Collegiate Dictionary, 2001, p. 346). See APA, Chapter 6, p. 171-173</p><p>Comma used after clause</p></li><li><p>Book Title Substituted for Author victims of cyberterrorism (Windhorst, 2004, p. 237). Krankenstein (2006) reported that "empirical research verified compliance" (p. 48). </p><p>Although Lynch (2007) stated, The findings are not entirely valid (p. 22), he later maintained that other studies reached different conclusions.</p><p> was defined as having leadership qualities (Transformational Leadership, 2001, p. 346). See APA, Chapter 6, p. 171-173</p><p>Entry title substituted for author</p></li><li><p>Book Title Substituted for Author victims of cyberterrorism (Windhorst, 2004, p. 237). Krankenstein (2006) reported that "empirical research verified compliance" (p. 48). </p><p>Although Lynch (2007) stated, The findings are not entirely valid (p. 22), he later maintained that other studies reached different conclusions.</p><p> was defined as having leadership qualities (Transformational Leadership, 2001, p. 346).</p><p>(Freud, 1900/1953) (miller, 2010-2012) (Pinzer, [ca. 2011]) See APA, Chapter 6, p. 171-173</p><p>Republished Book and Using Circa</p></li><li><p>Quotes Introduced by a ClauseThe principal stated, Instructors may or may not want to require an abstract for class assignments (Tunon, 2006, p. 34), but she concluded that they always summarized the essential content of the paper. In midsentence Quotes must be introduced.Tunon (2006) found that instructors may or may not want to require an abstract for class assignments (p. 34).At end of a sentence </p></li><li><p>Quotes Integrated into SentenceThe principal stated, Instructors may or may not want to require an abstract for class assignments (Tunon, 2006, p. 34), but she concluded that they always summarized the essential content of the paper. In midsentence Quotes must be introduced.Tunon (2006) found that instructors may or may not want to require an abstract for class assignments (p. 34).At end of a sentence </p></li><li><p>Text vs Block QuotesThe abstract is a one-paragraph summary or overview of the paper and should summarize the essential content of the paper (Tunon, 2009, p. 34). Direct quote for less than 40 words:Block quote (more than 40 words): Students at Nova Southeastern University have faced challenges in learning how to use APA formatting. When discussing the challenges, Strunk (1922) stated: Use quotes around an article title or book chapter, but italicize the title of a book, journal, brochure, or report when used in the body of the paper. Use a short title in the parenthetical citation or complete title if the title is short. NOTE Non-periodical titles like books and book titles have all the important words capitalized in the text citations, but these same book titles do not have all the important words capitalized in the reference list. (p. 342)</p><p>Callahan (2001), however, says .Note where the periods go!APA manual, p. 92</p></li><li><p>When to Include Page Numbers in the Text and Reference ListIn the text, the page number is required for direct quotes and optional for paraphrased content. For example: . . . validated findings (Turner, 2012, p. 233). Turner, J. T. (2012). The circle of learning. Reading Teacher, 23(5), 229-234.In the reference list:Newspapers, newsletters, book chapters, conference proceedings. For example:Turner, J. (2009). Piagets reading theories (pp. 210-233). New York, NY: Scarecrow Press.</p></li><li><p>When to Include Page Numbers in the Text and Reference ListIn the text, the page number is required for direct quotes and optional for paraphrased content. For example: . . . validated findings (Turner, 2012, p. 233). Turner, J. T. (2012). The circle of learning. Reading Teacher, 23(5), 229-234. Use pp. in the reference list for the following:Newspapers, newsletters, book chapters, conference proceedings. For example:Turner, J. (2009). Piagets reading theories (pp. 210-233). New York, NY: Scarecrow Press.</p></li><li><p>Test yourself Text CitationsThe research project (Smith, Brown, and Jones, no date)orThe research project (Smith, Brown, &amp; Jones, n.d.) or3. The research project (Smith, Brown, &amp; Jones, no date) or4. The research project (Smith, Brown, and Jones, n.d.) </p><p>Two research studies (APA, 2002; Barnes, 2005) orTwo research studies (Barnes, 2005. AP...</p></li></ul>

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