APA - In-text Citations 5th Edition

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APA - In-text Citations 5th Edition

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    SocialSciences

    Overview

    APAintextcitationsAPAsintextcitationsprovideatleasttheauthorslastnameandtheyearofpublication.Fordirectquotationsandsomeparaphrases,apagenumberisgivenaswell.

    TheguidelinespresentedhereareconsistentwithadvicegiveninthePublicationManualoftheAmericanPsychologicalAssociation,6thed.(2010).

    NOTE:APAstylerequirestheuseofthepasttenseorthepresentperfecttenseinsignalphrasesintroducingcitedmaterial:Smith(2005)reportedSmith(2005)hasargued.

    APAintextcitations

    1.BasicformatforaquotationOrdinarily,introducethequotationwithasignalphrasethatincludestheauthorslastnamefollowedbytheyearofpublicationinparentheses.Putthepagenumberprecededby"p."(or"pp."formorethanonepage)inparenthesesafterthequotation.

    Critser(2003)notedthatdespitegrowingnumbersofoverweightAmericans,manyhealthcareprovidersstillremaineitherinignoranceoroutrightdenialaboutthehealthdangertothepoorandtheyoung(p.5).

    Iftheauthorisnotnamedinthesignalphrase,placetheauthorsname,theyear,andthepagenumberinparenthesesafterthequotation:(Critser,2003,p.5).

    NOTE:APAstylerequirestheyearofpublicationinanintextcitation.Donotincludeamonth,eveniftheentryinthereferencelistincludesthemonth.

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    2.BasicformatforasummaryoraparaphraseIncludetheauthorslastnameandtheyeareitherinasignalphraseintroducingthematerialorinparenthesesfollowingit.Giveapagenumbertohelpreadersfindthepassage.Foronlinesourceswithoutpagenumbers,seeNopagenumbersinitem12.

    YanovskiandYanovski(2002)explainedthatsibutraminesuppressesappetitebyblockingthereuptakeoftheneurotransmittersserotoninandnorepinephrineinthebrain(p.594).

    Sibutraminesuppressesappetitebyblockingthereuptakeoftheneurotransmittersserotoninandnorepinephrineinthebrain(Yanovski&Yanovski,2002,p.594).

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    http://bcs.bedfordstmartins.com/resdoc5e/RES5e_ch09_s10001.html Go NOV ABR MAY

    52014 2015 2016

    104captures19ago105abr15

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  • 3.WorkwithtwoauthorsNamebothauthorsinthesignalphraseortheparentheseseachtimeyoucitethework.Intheparentheses,use&betweentheauthorsnamesinthesignalphrase,useand.

    AccordingtoSothernandGordon(2003),Environmentalfactorsmaycontributeasmuchas80%tothecausesofchildhoodobesity(p.104).

    Obesechildrenoftenengageinlimitedphysicalactivity(Sothern&Gordon,2003,p.104).

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    4.WorkwiththreetofiveauthorsIdentifyallauthorsinthesignalphraseortheparenthesesthefirsttimeyoucitethesource.

    In2003,Berkowitz,Wadden,Tershakovec,andCronquistconcluded,Sibutramine...mustbecarefullymonitoredinadolescents,asinadults,tocontrolincreasesin[bloodpressure]andpulserate(p.1811).

    Insubsequentcitations,usethefirstauthorsnamefollowedbyetal.ineitherthesignalphraseortheparentheses.

    AsBerkowitzetal.(2003)advised,Untilmoreextensivesafetyandefficacydataareavailable,...weightlossmedicationsshouldbeusedonlyonanexperimentalbasisforadolescents(p.1811).

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    5.WorkwithsixormoreauthorsUsethefirstauthorsnamefollowedbyetal.inthesignalphraseortheparentheses.

    McDuffieetal.(2002)tested20adolescents,aged1216,overathreemonthperiodandfoundthatorlistat,combinedwithbehavioraltherapy,producedanaverageweightlossof4.4kg,or9.7pounds(p.646).

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    6.WorkwithunknownauthorIftheauthorisunknown,mentiontheworkstitleinthesignalphraseorgivethefirstwordortwoofthetitleintheparentheticalcitation.Titlesofarticlesandchaptersareputinquotationmarkstitlesofbooksandreportsareitalicized.(Foronlinesourceswithnoauthor,seeitem12.)

    Childrenstrugglingtocontroltheirweightmustalsostrugglewiththepressuresoftelevisionadvertisingthat,ontheonehand,encouragestheconsumptionofjunkfoodand,ontheother,celebratesthincelebrities(Television,2002).

    NOTE:IntherarecasewhenAnonymousisspecifiedastheauthor,treatitasifitwerearealname:(Anonymous,2001).Inthelistofreferences,alsousethenameAnonymousasauthor.

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    7.OrganizationasauthorIftheauthorisagovernmentagencyoranotherorganization,nametheorganizationinthesignalphraseorintheparentheticalcitationthefirsttimeyoucitethesource.

    Obesityputschildrenatriskforanumberofmedicalcomplications,includingtype2diabetes,hypertension,sleepapnea,andorthopedicproblems(HenryJ.KaiserFamilyFoundation,2004,p.1).

  • Iftheorganizationhasafamiliarabbreviation,youmayincludeitinbracketsthefirsttimeyoucitethesourceandusetheabbreviationaloneinlatercitations.

    FIRSTCITATION

    (CentersforDiseaseControlandPrevention[CDC],2009)

    LATERCITATIONS

    (CDC,2009)

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    8.AuthorswiththesamelastnameToavoidconfusion,useinitialswiththelastnamesifyourreferencelistincludestwoormoreauthorswiththesamelastname.

    ResearchbyE.Smith(1989)revealedthat...

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    9.TwoormoreworksbythesameauthorinthesameyearWhenyourlistofreferencesincludesmorethanoneworkbythesameauthorinthesameyear,uselowercaseletters(a,b,andsoon)withtheyeartoordertheentriesinthereferencelist.(Seeitem6.)Usethosesameletterswiththeyearintheintextcitation.

    ResearchbyDurgin(2003b)hasyieldednewfindingsabouttheroleofcounselingintreatingchildhoodobesity.

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    10.TwoormoreworksinthesameparenthesesWhenyourparentheticalcitationnamestwoormoreworks,puttheminthesameorderthattheyappearinthereferencelist,separatedwithsemicolons.

    Researchershaveindicatedthatstudiesofpharmacologicaltreatmentsforchildhoodobesityareinconclusive(Berkowitzetal.,2003McDuffieetal.,2002).

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    11.PersonalcommunicationPersonalinterviews,memos,letters,email,andsimilarunpublishedcommunicationsshouldbecitedinthetextonly,notinthereferencelist.(Usethefirstinitialwiththelastnameinparentheses.)

    OneofAtkinsonscolleagues,whohasstudiedtheeffectofthemediaonchildrenseatinghabits,hascontendedthatadvertisersforsnackfoodswillneedtodesignadsresponsiblyfortheiryoungerviewers(F.Johnson,personalcommunication,October20,2009).

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    12.ElectronicsourceWhenpossible,citeelectronicsources,includingonlinesources,asyouwouldanyothersource,givingtheauthorandtheyear.

  • Atkinson(2001)foundthatchildrenwhospentatleastfourhoursadaywatchingTVwerelesslikelytoengageinadequatephysicalactivityduringtheweek.

    Electronicsourcessometimeslackauthorsnames,dates,orpagenumbers.

    Unknownauthor

    Ifnoauthorisnamed,mentionthetitleofthesourceinthesignalphraseorgivethefirstwordortwoofthetitleintheparentheses(seealsoitem6).(Ifanorganizationservesastheauthor,seeitem7.)

    Thebodysbasalmetabolicrate,orBMR,isameasureofitsatrestenergyrequirement(Exercise,2003).

    Unknowndate

    Whenthedateisunknown,usetheabbreviationn.d.(fornodate).

    Attemptstoestablishadefinitivelinkbetweentelevisionprogrammingandchildrenseatinghabitshavebeenproblematic(Magnus,n.d.).

    Nopagenumbers

    APAordinarilyrequirespagenumbersforquotations,summaries,andparaphrases.Whenanelectronicsourcelacksstablenumberedpages,includeparagraphnumbersorheadingstohelpreaderslocatetheparticularpassagebeingcited.

    Ifthesourcehasnumberedparagraphs,usetheparagraphnumberprecededbytheabbreviationpara.:(Hall,2008,para.5).Ifthesourcecontainsheadings,citetheappropriateheadinginparenthesesyoumayalsoindicatetheparagraphundertheheadingthatyouarereferringto,eveniftheparagraphsarenotnumbered.

    HoppinandTaveras(2004)pointedoutthatseveralothermedicationswereclassifiedbytheDrugEnforcementAdministrationashavingthepotentialforabuse(WeightLossDrugssection,para.6).

    NOTE:Electronicfilesinportabledocumentformat(PDF)oftenhavestablepagenumbers.Forsuchsources,givethepagenumberintheparentheticalcitation.

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    13.IndirectsourceIfyouuseasourcethatwascitedinanothersource(asecondarysource),nametheoriginalsourceinyoursignalphrase.Listthesecondarysourceinyourreferencelistandincludeitinyourparentheticalcitation,precededbythewordsascitedin.Inthefollowingexample,Satcheristheoriginalsource,andCritseristhesecondarysource,giveninthereferencelist.

    FormersurgeongeneralDr.DavidSatcherdescribedanationofyoungpeopleseriouslyatriskofstartingoutobeseanddoomingthemselvestothedifficulttaskofovercomingatoughillness(ascitedinCritser,2003,p.4).

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    14.SacredorclassicaltextIdentifythetext,theversionoreditionyouused,andtherelevantpart(chapter,verse,line).Itisnotnecessarytoincludethesourceinthereferencelist.

  • Peaceactivistshavelongcitedthebiblicalprophetsvisionofaworldwithoutwar:Andtheyshallbeattheirswordsintoplowshares,andtheirspearsintopruninghooksnationshallnotliftupswordagainstnation,neithershalltheylearnwaranymore(Isaiah2:4,RevisedStandardVersion).

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