AP U.S. Government & Politics Review For AP Government Exam.

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AP U.S. Government & Politics Review For AP Government Exam Slide 2 2/3s Override of a presidential veto in both houses of Congress Override of a presidential veto in both houses of Congress Senate approval of a treaty Senate approval of a treaty Proposal for a Constitutional Amendment in both houses of Congress Proposal for a Constitutional Amendment in both houses of Congress States can petition Congress for a constitutional Amendment by a national convention States can petition Congress for a constitutional Amendment by a national convention Conviction in impeachment trial in the Senate Conviction in impeachment trial in the Senate Slide 3 US Constitution Preamble We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union Preamble We the People of the United States, in Order to form a more perfect Union 7 articles 7 articles Article I Legislative, II Executive, III Judicial, IV Full faith credit, extradition, federalism, creation new states, V Amending, VI Supremacy Clause, VII Ratification Article I Legislative, II Executive, III Judicial, IV Full faith credit, extradition, federalism, creation new states, V Amending, VI Supremacy Clause, VII Ratification 27 Amendments (Bill of Rights 1-10, added 1791) 27 Amendments (Bill of Rights 1-10, added 1791) 1787 1787 Supreme Law of the Land Supreme Law of the Land A living document Or; Constraining document A living document Or; Constraining document Slide 4 Principles of the Constitution Checks and Balances Checks and Balances Separation of Powers Separation of Powers Federalism Federalism Republicanism Republicanism Judicial review Judicial review Other liberties included within the articles Other liberties included within the articles Writ of habeas corpus Writ of habeas corpus Bill of attainder Bill of attainder Ex post facto laws Ex post facto laws Slide 5 Articles of Confederation National government could not levy taxes National government could not levy taxes No national army No national army No control over trade (domestic of foreign) No control over trade (domestic of foreign) No federal supremacy No federal supremacy No Supreme Court No Supreme Court No Executive No Executive Amendments only by unanimous vote Amendments only by unanimous vote To pass laws required a 9/13s vote To pass laws required a 9/13s vote 1781-1787 1781-1787 Slide 6 Federalist #10 James Madison James Madison Factions (interest groups/parties) Factions (interest groups/parties) Factions allow us to consider all sides; inevitable differences; but dangerous if not monitored. Govt is the mediator between factions, none should gain enough power to violate others rights in free govt Factions allow us to consider all sides; inevitable differences; but dangerous if not monitored. Govt is the mediator between factions, none should gain enough power to violate others rights in free govt liberty is to faction what air is to fire liberty is to faction what air is to fire The regulation of these various and interfering interests forms the principal task of modern legislation The regulation of these various and interfering interests forms the principal task of modern legislation George Washington in his Farewell Address warned against factions and political parties George Washington in his Farewell Address warned against factions and political parties Slide 7 Federalist #51 James Madison James Madison Checks and balances and separation of powers of the national government Checks and balances and separation of powers of the national government The great difficultly lies in this: you must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place oblige it to control itself. The great difficultly lies in this: you must first enable the government to control the governed; and in the next place oblige it to control itself. ambition must be made to counteract ambition ambition must be made to counteract ambition Slide 8 Federalist #78 Alexander Hamilton Alexander Hamilton Judicial power implied judicial review Judicial power implied judicial review The independence of judges is an essential safeguard against effects of society The independence of judges is an essential safeguard against effects of society (Judicial Branch) has neither FORCE NOR WILL, but merely judgment (Judicial Branch) has neither FORCE NOR WILL, but merely judgment right of the courts to pronounce legislative acts void right of the courts to pronounce legislative acts void No legislative act, therefore, contrary to the constitution, can be valid. No legislative act, therefore, contrary to the constitution, can be valid. Slide 9 Delegated Powers Expressed or Enumerated Expressed or Enumerated Powers listed in the Constitution Powers listed in the Constitution Most are found in Article I, Section 8 (Powers of Congress) Most are found in Article I, Section 8 (Powers of Congress) Article II Executive Branch Article II Executive Branch Article III Judicial Branch Article III Judicial Branch Slide 10 Implied Powers Authority granted by inference of the Constitutions delegated powers Authority granted by inference of the Constitutions delegated powers Article I, section 8 necessary and proper clause Article I, section 8 necessary and proper clause McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) The Executive has Commander-in-Chief power to make war whereas Congress has the delegated power to declare war The Executive has Commander-in-Chief power to make war whereas Congress has the delegated power to declare war Slide 11 Inherent Powers Self-evident powers Self-evident powers Protection the citizens under the government Protection the citizens under the government Powers which are automatic for a nation-state -- foreign negotiations, make international agreements, acquire territory, protection of citizens, etc. Powers which are automatic for a nation-state -- foreign negotiations, make international agreements, acquire territory, protection of citizens, etc. The US is a sovereign power among nations The US is a sovereign power among nations Presidents question their inherent powers during times of crisis and emergencies Presidents question their inherent powers during times of crisis and emergencies Slide 12 Article I Legislative Branch (Congress) Legislative Branch (Congress) House and Senate House and Senate Very detailed powers (I.8) Very detailed powers (I.8) Impeachment (House Impeaches; Senate conducts trial) Impeachment (House Impeaches; Senate conducts trial) Gives Congress the most power Gives Congress the most power Necessary-and-proper clause Necessary-and-proper clause Habeas corpus, no bill of attainder or ex post facto laws Habeas corpus, no bill of attainder or ex post facto laws Interstate commerce clause Interstate commerce clause Slide 13 Article II Executive Powers Executive Powers Vague on purpose and meaning Vague on purpose and meaning Commander-in-Chief (power to make war) Commander-in-Chief (power to make war) Make treaties Make treaties Make pardons Make pardons State of the Union Address State of the Union Address Appointments to the federal govt Appointments to the federal govt Slide 14 Marbury v. Madison (1803) Judicial review Judicial review 1st time S.C. declared a Congressional act -- Judiciary Act of 1789 -- unconstitutional 1st time S.C. declared a Congressional act -- Judiciary Act of 1789 -- unconstitutional Chief Justice John Marshall wrote decision Chief Justice John Marshall wrote decision Legitimized the role of the Supreme Court Legitimized the role of the Supreme Court Slide 15 Grants Ways that federal govt disperses $ to state and local governments Ways that federal govt disperses $ to state and local governments Grants-in-aid Grants-in-aid Categorical -- formula grants, $ for a specific purpose, subject to federal supervision Categorical -- formula grants, $ for a specific purpose, subject to federal supervision Project Grants -- state, local, and nongovernmental agencies can apply for $ (universities, employment training programs) Project Grants -- state, local, and nongovernmental agencies can apply for $ (universities, employment training programs) Block -- few strings attached, broad grants (child care, welfare, social services, and health care Block -- few strings attached, broad grants (child care, welfare, social services, and health care Slide 16 Mandates Mandates law be implemented at all levels of government Mandates law be implemented at all levels of government New Deal Programs and Great Society Programs were mandates for the nation New Deal Programs and Great Society Programs were mandates for the nation Lawyers for indigent persons Lawyers for indigent persons Unfunded Mandates Unfunded Mandates Americans With Disabilities Act (1990) Americans With Disabilities Act (1990) No Child Left Behind (NCLB) of 2001 No Child Left Behind (NCLB) of 2001 Slide 17 McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) Federal supremacy Federal supremacy Unanimous decision Unanimous decision Question over the power of Congress to establish a national bank Question over the power of Congress to establish a national bank (I.8.18) Congress may make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution and all other powers vested inthe govt of the Unites States or the elastic clause (I.8.18) Congress may make all laws necessary and proper for carrying into execution and all other powers vested inthe govt of the Unites States or the elastic clause Justice John Marshall expanded the role of the national government Justice John Marshall expanded the role of the national government Power to tax is the power to destroy Power to tax is the power to destroy Slide 18 Due Process 5th and 14th Amendments 5th and 14th Amendments Equal treatment under the law Equal treatment under the law Protection against deprivation of life, liberty, or property Protection against deprivation of life, liberty, or property Rights of the accused Rights of the accused Slide 19 V (5 th ) Amendment Due process Due process Eminent domain (govt will pay $ for private property) Eminent domain (govt will pay $ for private property) Self-incrimination Self-incrimination Double jeopardy Double jeopardy Capital crime -- Grand Jury (except Military and emergencies) Capital crime -- Grand Jury (except Military and emergencies) Slide 20 XIV (14 th ) Amendment Due process Due process Defined citizenship Defined citizenship Incorporation Incorporation Application of due process to the States -- nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without the due process of the law Application of due process to the States -- nor shall any State deprive any person of life, liberty, or property, without the due process of the law Gitlow v. New York (1925) Gitlow v. New York (1925) Equal-protection clause Equal-protection clause Slide 21 1 st Amendment Establishment Clause: make no law respecting the establishment of Establishment Clause: make no law respecting the establishment of Free exercise clause or prohibiting the free exercise of Free exercise clause or prohibiting the free exercise of Liberties: religion, speech, press, assembly (also petition) Liberties: religion, speech, press, assembly (also petition) Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971) lemon test or 3-prong test Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971) lemon test or 3-prong test Engle v. Vitale (1962) no prayer in school Engle v. Vitale (1962) no prayer in school Schenck v. United States (1919) clear and present danger Schenck v. United States (1919) clear and present danger Gitlow v. New York (1925) incorporation Gitlow v. New York (1925) incorporation Slide 22 Horizontal Federalism State to state relations State to state relations Full Faith & Credit (IV,1) requires states to enforce judgments of other states (divorce) and accept public records as valid (marriage licenses, i.d.) Full Faith & Credit (IV,1) requires states to enforce judgments of other states (divorce) and accept public records as valid (marriage licenses, i.d.) Interstate Privileges and Immunities (IV, 2) must extend to extend citizens of other states (question today over same-sex marriages) Interstate Privileges and Immunities (IV, 2) must extend to extend citizens of other states (question today over same-sex marriages) Extradition (IV, 2) states must deliver criminals back to home state Extradition (IV, 2) states must deliver criminals back to home state Interstate Compacts (I, 10) states must settle disputes peacefully Interstate Compacts (I, 10) states must settle disputes peacefully Slide 23 Suffrage Amendments 15 th (1870) African Americans 15 th (1870) African Americans 19th (1920) Women 19th (1920) Women 26th (1971) 18 year-old vote 26th (1971) 18 year-old vote Slide 24 Participation in Government Conventional Conventional Unconventional Unconventional Slide 25 House of Representatives 435, 2 year term, 25 yrs old, 7 resident, citizen 435, 2 year term, 25 yrs old, 7 resident, citizen Apportionment by population for each state Florida has 25 districts) Apportionment by population for each state Florida has 25 districts) Districts decided by state legislatures, census of pop every 10 years Districts decided by state legislatures, census of pop every 10 years Smaller constituency, less staffers, less media, limited debate time Smaller constituency, less staffers, less media, limited debate time All appropriation/revenue bills start in the HOUSE All appropriation/revenue bills start in the HOUSE Ways and Means Committee Ways and Means Committee Rules Committee (decides rules of debate/possible rules?) Rules Committee (decides rules of debate/possible rules?) Quorum (218) (Committee of the Whole) Quorum (218) (Committee of the Whole) Speaker of the House (3rd in the succession of presidency) Speaker of the House (3rd in the succession of presidency) Policy specialists Policy specialists Power to impeach (accuse) Power to impeach (accuse) Slide 26 Senate 100 (2 per state) 100 (2 per state) Larger constituency, more staffers, more seniority, more media, more prestige Larger constituency, more staffers, more seniority, more media, more prestige 6 year term, 30 yrs old, 9 yrs resident, citizen 6 year term, 30 yrs old, 9 yrs resident, citizen Riders allowed on bills Riders allowed on bills Filibuster and cloture (3/5 of Senate) Filibuster and cloture (3/5 of Senate) Confirmation presidential nominations: federal judges, ambassadors, US marshals, Supreme Court justices Confirmation presidential nominations: federal judges, ambassadors, US marshals, Supreme Court justices Ratify treaties (2/3) Ratify treaties (2/3) Hold impeachment trials Hold impeachment trials Slide 27 Presidency Article II Article II 4 year term, 35 yrs old, 14 yr resident and natural- born citizen 4 year term, 35 yrs old, 14 yr resident and natural- born citizen 22nd Amendment, max 2 terms in office, or 10 years, reaction to FDR 22nd Amendment, max 2 terms in office, or 10 y...

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