AP U.S. Government and politics FINAL EXAM REVIEW, FALL 2014.

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  • Slide 1
  • AP U.S. Government and politics FINAL EXAM REVIEW, FALL 2014
  • Slide 2
  • CONSTITUTIONAL UNDERPINNINGS: 5-15% Considerations that influenced the formation and adoption of the ConstitutionConsiderations that influenced the formation and adoption of the Constitution Separation of powersSeparation of powers Checks and balancesChecks and balances FederalismFederalism Theories of democratic governmentTheories of democratic government
  • Slide 3
  • Constitutional underpinnings: 5-15% Articles of Confederation:Articles of Confederation: Created the union of the states into the U.S.Created the union of the states into the U.S. Granted Congress the power to authorize the Revolutionary WarGranted Congress the power to authorize the Revolutionary War Central Government under the Articles was too weakCentral Government under the Articles was too weak No executive or central executive agenciesNo executive or central executive agencies No central judiciaryNo central judiciary Nine of thirteen states approval required for legislationNine of thirteen states approval required for legislation Amendments required unanimous consent of the statesAmendments required unanimous consent of the states No central tax baseNo central tax base
  • Slide 4
  • Constitutional underpinnings: 5-15% Compromises discussed at the Constitutional ConventionCompromises discussed at the Constitutional Convention Virginia Plan: bicameral legislature based upon populationVirginia Plan: bicameral legislature based upon population New Jersey Plan: unicameral legislature, with all states represented equallyNew Jersey Plan: unicameral legislature, with all states represented equally Connecticut Plan : bicameral legislature Connecticut Plan : bicameral legislature House of Representatives: based upon populationHouse of Representatives: based upon population Senate: all states represented equallySenate: all states represented equally
  • Slide 5
  • Constitutional underpinnings: 5-15% Separation of PowersSeparation of Powers Legislative Branch:Legislative Branch: Checks on the Executive:Checks on the Executive: May override presidential vetoes by 2/3 vote of both housesMay override presidential vetoes by 2/3 vote of both houses Power to declare warPower to declare war Power to enact taxes and allocate fundsPower to enact taxes and allocate funds Senatorial approval of treaties with 2/3 voteSenatorial approval of treaties with 2/3 vote House has impeachment powerHouse has impeachment power Senate conducts impeachment trialsSenate conducts impeachment trials House selects president and Senate selects vice-president if no candidate receives majority of electoral votesHouse selects president and Senate selects vice-president if no candidate receives majority of electoral votes Senate approves cabinet officials and ambassadorsSenate approves cabinet officials and ambassadors President must report annually on the state of the unionPresident must report annually on the state of the union Twenty-fifth Amendment: majority in House and majority in Senate must approve presidential nominee to fill vice-presidency vacancyTwenty-fifth Amendment: majority in House and majority in Senate must approve presidential nominee to fill vice-presidency vacancy
  • Slide 6
  • Constitutional underpinnings: 5-15% Separation of PowersSeparation of Powers Legislative Branch:Legislative Branch: Checks on the Judiciary:Checks on the Judiciary: Senate approves federal judgesSenate approves federal judges House has power to impeach federal judgesHouse has power to impeach federal judges Senate has power to deal with impeachment charges and remove judges from office by 2/3 voteSenate has power to deal with impeachment charges and remove judges from office by 2/3 vote Power to initiate constitutional amendmentsPower to initiate constitutional amendments Power to establish lower courts below the SCOTUSPower to establish lower courts below the SCOTUS Power to set courts jurisdictionPower to set courts jurisdiction Power to alter size of SCOTUSPower to alter size of SCOTUS
  • Slide 7
  • Constitutional underpinnings: 5-15% Separation of PowersSeparation of Powers Legislative Branch:Legislative Branch: Internal checksInternal checks Bills must be passed by both houses of CongressBills must be passed by both houses of Congress Neither house may adjourn for more than 3 days without the consent of the other houseNeither house may adjourn for more than 3 days without the consent of the other house All journals with information on debates and legislation must be publishedAll journals with information on debates and legislation must be published
  • Slide 8
  • Constitutional underpinnings: 5-15% Separation of PowersSeparation of Powers Executive Branch:Executive Branch: Checks on the Legislature:Checks on the Legislature: Veto powerVeto power Vice president is President of the Senate, but only to break a tieVice president is President of the Senate, but only to break a tie Recess appointments can be made without senatorial approval if Congress is not in sessionRecess appointments can be made without senatorial approval if Congress is not in session Emergency power to call one or both houses of Congress into sessionEmergency power to call one or both houses of Congress into session May force adjournment when both houses cannot agree upon adjournmentMay force adjournment when both houses cannot agree upon adjournment Compensation cannot be diminishedCompensation cannot be diminished
  • Slide 9
  • Constitutional underpinnings: 5-15% Separation of PowersSeparation of Powers Executive Branch:Executive Branch: Checks on the Judiciary:Checks on the Judiciary: Power to nominate federal judgesPower to nominate federal judges Pardon powerPardon power
  • Slide 10
  • Constitutional underpinnings: 5-15% Separation of PowersSeparation of Powers Judicial Branch:Judicial Branch: Checks on the Executive:Checks on the Executive: Judicial review of actions of president or other executive officialsJudicial review of actions of president or other executive officials Judicial review of treatiesJudicial review of treaties Chief Justice presides over Senate during presidential impeachment (but has little power)Chief Justice presides over Senate during presidential impeachment (but has little power)
  • Slide 11
  • Constitutional underpinnings: 5-15% Separation of PowersSeparation of Powers Judicial Branch:Judicial Branch: Checks on the Legislature:Checks on the Legislature: Judicial review of congressional lawsJudicial review of congressional laws Judicial review of treatiesJudicial review of treaties Judges continue in office on good behavior and can only be removed by impeachmentJudges continue in office on good behavior and can only be removed by impeachment Compensation of sitting judges cannot be diminishedCompensation of sitting judges cannot be diminished
  • Slide 12
  • Constitutional underpinnings: 5-15% Procedures for amending the Constitution:Procedures for amending the Constitution: Amendment proposed by 2/3 vote of House and Senate; then EITHER:Amendment proposed by 2/3 vote of House and Senate; then EITHER: Amendment ratified by vote of state legislatures; ORAmendment ratified by vote of state legislatures; OR Amendment ratified by vote of state conventions called to consider amendmentAmendment ratified by vote of state conventions called to consider amendment
  • Slide 13
  • Constitutional underpinnings: 5-15% Federalism: power given to and divided between both the federal and the state governmentsFederalism: power given to and divided between both the federal and the state governments
  • Slide 14
  • POLITICAL BELIEFS AND BEHAVIORS: 10-20% Beliefs that citizens hold about their government and its leadersBeliefs that citizens hold about their government and its leaders Processes by which citizens learn about politicsProcesses by which citizens learn about politics The nature, sources, and consequences of public opinionThe nature, sources, and consequences of public opinion The ways in which citizens vote and otherwise participate in political lifeThe ways in which citizens vote and otherwise participate in political life Factors that influence citizens to differ from one another in terms of political beliefs and behaviorsFactors that influence citizens to differ from one another in terms of political beliefs and behaviors
  • Slide 15
  • POLITICAL BELIEFS AND BEHAVIORS: 10-20% Political culture: a distinctive and patterned way of thinking about how political and economic life ought to be carried out; consists of fundamental assumptions about how the political process should operatePolitical culture: a distinctive and patterned way of thinking about how political and economic life ought to be carried out; consists of fundamental assumptions about how the political process should operate Political efficacy: a citizens understanding of his or her capacity to influence political events; indicates a citizens belief that he or she can understand and influence political affairsPolitical efficacy: a citizens understanding of his or her capacity to influence political events; indicates a citizens belief that he or she can understand and influence political affairs
  • Slide 16
  • POLITICAL BELIEFS AND BEHAVIORS: 10-20% Political socialization:Political socialization: for a younger person, family typically influences his or her party identificationfor a younger person, family typically influences his or her party identification ReligionReligion Educational systemsEducational systems MediaMedia Peer groupsPeer groups
  • Slide 17
  • POLITICAL BELIEFS AND BEHAVIORS: 10-20% Public Opinion Polls:Public Opinion Polls: Should leaders pay less attention; lead rather than follow public opinion?Should leaders pay less attention; lead rather than follow public opinion? Could become mechanism for majority tyrannyCould become mechanism for majority tyranny Cleavage in public opinion: public is divided in their opinions on various topicsCleavage in public opinion: public is divided in their opinions on various topics Social class, race, ethnicity, religionSocial class, race, ethnicity, religion
  • Slide 18
  • POLITICAL BELIEFS AND BEHAVIORS: 10-20% Elections and Voting BehaviorElections and Voting Behavior Older people more likely to vote than younger peopleOlder people more likely to vote than younger people People with more education more likely to vote than people with less educationPeople with more education more likely to vote than people with less education Possible reasons for low turnout:Possible reasons for low turnout: Rise of partisan politics and weakening of competitiveness between two partiesRise of partisan politics and weakening of competitiveness between two parties Perceived corruption within politics when little changes with each successive election; lack of changePerceived corruption within politics when little changes with each successive election; lack of change Onerous voter registration requirementsOnerous voter registration requirements
  • Slide 19
  • POLITICAL BELIEFS AND BEHAVIORS: 10-20% Political Ideologies:Political Ideologies: Conservatives:Conservatives: Favor limited-government approach, freedoms for private economic sectorFavor limited-government approach, freedoms for private economic sector Generally support military spending, free markets, prayer in school, reduce taxesGenerally support military spending, free markets, prayer in school, reduce taxes Generally oppose abortion, affirmative action, government spending on social programsGenerally oppose abortion, affirmative action, government spending on social programs
  • Slide 20
  • POLITICAL BELIEFS AND BEHAVIORS: 10-20% Political Ideologies:Political Ideologies: Liberals:Liberals: Generally favor larger government with social and economic responsibilities, more equal distribution of wealth, government spending, additional and restrictive regulation of big business, womens rightsGenerally favor larger government with social and economic responsibilities, more equal distribution of wealth, government spending, additional and restrictive regulation of big business, womens rights Generally opposed to increases in defense spending and military actions, prayer in school, tax breaks for the wealthyGenerally opposed to increases in defense spending and military actions, prayer in school, tax breaks for the wealthy
  • Slide 21
  • POLITICAL BELIEFS AND BEHAVIORS: 10-20% Basic Differences Between Liberals and Conservatives:Basic Differences Between Liberals and Conservatives: LiberalConservative Economy:RegulateHands Off Social Welfare:More benefits for the poorLess benefits for the poor Moral Concerns:Differing lifestylesTraditional family values Civil Rights:Affirmative ActionNo group rights National Security:Prudent defenseProtect at all costs U.S.s role in the world:Mutual engagementIsolationist Purpose of Government:Help the peopleVery limited intrusion Private or public solutions:Government solutionsPrivate charity causes Federalism Questions:National solutionsState solutions
  • Slide 22
  • POLITICAL PARTIES, INTEREST GROUPS, AND MASS MEDIA: 10-20% Political parties and electionsPolitical parties and elections FunctionsFunctions OrganizationOrganization DevelopmentDevelopment Effects on the political processEffects on the political process Electoral laws and systemsElectoral laws and systems
  • Slide 23
  • POLITICAL PARTIES, INTEREST GROUPS, AND MASS MEDIA: 10-20% Interest groups, including political action committees (PACs)Interest groups, including political action committees (PACs) The range of interests representedThe range of interests represented The activities of interest groupsThe activities of interest groups The effects of interest groups on the political processThe effects of interest groups on the political process The unique characteristics and roles of PACs in the political processThe unique characteristics and roles of PACs in the political process
  • Slide 24
  • POLITICAL PARTIES, INTEREST GROUPS, AND MASS MEDIA: 10-20% The mass mediaThe mass media The functions and structures of news mediaThe functions and structures of news media The impacts of the news media on politicsThe impacts of the news media on politics The news media industry and its consequencesThe news media industry and its consequences
  • Slide 25
  • POLITICAL PARTIES, INTEREST GROUPS, AND MASS MEDIA: 10-20% Functions of political parties:Functions of political parties: Political recruitmentPolitical recruitment Running campaignsRunning campaigns Providing political identityProviding political identity...

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