AP Exam Review US Government & Politics

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AP Exam Review US Government & Politics. 1 - Constitutional Foundations (5-15%). Declaration of Independence 1776 Unalienable/natural rights Government is limited by the consent of the governed Colonists were separating from Great Britain - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


<p>AP Exam Review US Government &amp; Politics</p> <p>AP Exam ReviewUS Government &amp; Politics1 - Constitutional Foundations (5-15%)Declaration of Independence 1776 Unalienable/natural rightsGovernment is limited by the consent of the governedColonists were separating from Great BritainJefferson and others borrowed ideas from Lockes 2nd Treatise of Civil GovernmentArticles of ConfederationWeak national government with one-house Congress where states had most powerProblems: no unity among states, no power to tax, differing currencies, no chief executive or national court system, lack of foreign policy and securityConstitutional Foundations Constitution Philadelphia 1789The Great Compromise or Connecticut CompromiseCongress would be bicameral Senate has equal representation for smaller states (NJ Plan) and House has proportional representation for larger states (VA Plan)3/5th Compromise every five slaves would count as three for representation and tax purposesFederalists (rich elite) supported the new Constitution in the Federalist Papers but Anti- Federalists (farmers and middle class) wanted a bill of rights to protect individuals these were the 1st political partiesConstitutionArticle I Legislative Powers enumerated powers - taxes, regulate interstate commerce, make laws, coin money, declare warElastic or necessary and proper clause allows Congressional power to be interpreted broadly creates implied powersDENIED PowersDenying habeas corpus detaining without trialBill of attainder proscribes penalties w/out due processEx post facto laws that declare something illegal after the factArticle II Executive Powers commander-in-chief, makes treaties, appoints officials, signs or vetoes legislation, State of the Union, can call special sessions of Congress (these are called formal or delegated powers)Electoral College 12th Amendment (1804) required separate votes for President and VP to prevent outcomes like in 1796 and 1800 ConstitutionArticle III Judicial Powers very vague Only one Supreme Court no specific qualifications judges not held responsible to voters power comes from judicial review which was established by precedent in Marbury v. Madison 1803Article IV States rights full faith and credit clause says that states must respect other states laws and judgmentsArticle V Amendment process proposal by 2/3 of Congress and ratification by of state legislaturesArticle VI Supremacy Clause Constitution always overrides state lawsArticle VII Ratification nine states had to sign27 amendmentsConstitutionRepublicanism power comes from the people in the form of elected representativesFederalism power is divided between the central (federal) and state governmentsDual federalism (layer cake) separate and distinct roles focuses on 10th amendmentCooperative federalism (marble cake) shared responsibilities Separation of Powers three branches have distinct functionsChecks and Balances each branch has some control over other branchesConstitutionFederalist Papers#10 James Madison said factions (interest groups) can be dangerous and must be controlled diversity is good and tyranny of the majority must be prevented to protect minorities#51 Madison supports the idea of checks and balances and federalism saying this will further protect from tyranny#84 Alexander Hamilton argues the Bill of Rights was dangerous because every single right could never be predicted and therefore government might have free reign on unspecified rightsConstitution (Federalism)Grants-in-aid - $ given to another level of governmentCategorical Grants targeted for a specific purpose (gives federal government more power)Formula Grants - $ distributed based on eligibility requirements (Head Start for example)Project Grants - $ distributed based on competitive application processBlock Grants to be used for general purposes such as education (gives state government more power)Preemption Congress enacts a law for the federal govt. to take responsibility for a state function (Food Labeling in 1990)Mandate federal govt. forces states to comply with minimum standards the problem is they are often unfunded mandates that place a burden on statesNew Federalism was a hallmark of the Nixon and Reagan administrations</p> <p>2- Civil Liberties and Rights (5-15%) ReligionEstablishment clause government cannot promote religion (Lemon Test 1971)Free-exercise clause government cannot inhibit religion (strict scrutiny) Speech and PressPrior restraint censorship before publication Clear and present danger speech cannot incite violence (Justice Holmes Schenck v. US 1919)NY Times v. Sullivan 1964 libel is not protectedTX v. Johnson 1988 flag burning is protected as symbolic speechCivil Liberties Selective Incorporation Court has used the 14th amendment to apply the Bill of Rights to the statesDue process, double jeopardy, Miranda warnings, exclusionary rule, good-faith exception9th Amendment not all rights have been listed in the ConstitutionPrivacy, birth control, homosexuality, abortionCivil RightsEquality of opportunity vs. equality of outcomeAmendments 13, 14, &amp; 15 ended slavery but the black codes, grandfather clauses, poll taxes, Jim Crow laws, and Plessy v. Ferguson 1896 weakened blacks rightsNAACP used courts to end segregation in Brown v. BOE 1954De jure imposed by governmentDe facto occurs naturallyMLK Jr and civil rights activists used boycotts and civil disobedience lead JFK and LBJ to pass the Civil Rights Act of 1964, 24th amendment, Equal Opportunity Act of 1964, Voting Rights Act of 1965 and the Fair Housing Act of 1968Civil Rights1990 Americans with Disabilities ActAffirmative Action reverse discrimination or leveling the playing field? Court has been unclear laws must pass strict scrutinyCompelling governmental interestNarrowly tailoredLeast restrictive meansBakke race can be used as one criteria for admissions</p> <p>3- Political Beliefs and Behaviors (10-20%)Public OpinionVaries over time, place limits on government action, is not always educated but can spur official to actSampling should be random, of large size, and have variety to be accurateDistributionsSkewed leans to one side (death penalty)Bimodal split (gay marriage)Normal bell shaped/average (ideology)Socialization family, school/peers, communityEducation first, then socioeconomic status are the best indicators of opinionBeliefs and BehaviorIdeologyLiberals favor economic equality &amp; freedom of choice of behaviorConservative favor economic choice &amp; social orderParticipationConventional routine and acceptable voting, writing lettersUnconventional uncommon and defiant civil disobedience, strikesReasons for low voter turnoutWe vote more often and for more officesObstacle of registrationFeeling that govt. is not responsiveLess identification with political parties Obstacle of researching all options4 Parties, Elections, Interest Groups, Mass Media (10-20%)Functions of parties nominating candidates, structuring the voting choice, proposing alternative programs, coordinating actions of officialsMinor/3rd parties Bolter splits from major party Progressives 1912Farmer/labor represents working class Populists 1892Ideology propose different doctrines and principles SocialistSingle issue promote one principle, not an ideology ProhibitionMajority representation ( rather than proportional) favors the two-party systemPartiesNational OrganizationNational convention every 4 yearsNational committee(RNC and DNC) governs parties between conventionsCongressional party conferences beginning of each session to select party leaders and committee assignmentsCongressional campaign committees raise funds to support candidatesResponsible Party ModelParties present clear platformsVoters choose candidates based on party platformWinning party carries out its platformVoters hold party responsible at next election for carrying out the platform or notElections4 stages of Presidential Campaigninvisible primary many candidates do fundraising and campaigningPrimary season begins with Iowa caucus and NH primary in early Jan, Super Tuesday (Feb) front-loadingPresumed candidacies (Mar)Nominating conventions (Jul/Aug)Most countries nominate candidates, US elects candidatesPrimary state election to choose preferred presidential candidate Open can vote in either party OR Closed can only vote for the party you are registered asCaucus meeting of party members to choose candidate</p> <p>ElectionsGeneral election (Early Nov every other year)Presidential every four years, in between years are Congressional, off-year, or mid-termElectoral College each state has electors equal to their representatives in Congress 538 total 270 required to winVoters are not educated and a direct popular election would make recounts impossible but it is possible for a candidate to win the electoral college and lose the popular vote (1888 &amp; 2000)eLECTIONSCampaignsOpen election no incumbentIncumbent advantage name recognition, casework, franking privilege, media, financingFinancing 1971 Federal Election Campaign ActLimited hard money contributions to $1000 per individual and $5000 per PAC critics said their 1st amendment right to free speech was violated but the Supreme Court upheld the lawFEC Federal Election Commission 6 bipartisan members began enforcing limits and disclosing all campaign spending in 19762004 Bipartisan Campaign Reform Act or McCain-Feingold Act indexed hard money contributions for inflation but limited soft money contributions527s tax exempt groups not tied to any candidate but focus on particular issues (MoveOn.org) </p> <p>Interest GroupsPurposes representation, participation/action, education, agenda-building, program monitoringGroup TheoriesPluralist competing groups are good because they offer options and force government to actHyperpluralist competing groups are bad because they pull government in different direction and result in gridlockElitist competing groups only represent the rich and gives them too much powerResources membership, lobbyists, moneyFree rider problemInterest GroupsLobbying Techniques direct contact with officials, letter writing campaigns, influencing press, testifying at congressional hearings, providing research and feedback to officials, PAC fundraising, using technology to spread information, coalition buildingMediaPrivate Ownership=infotainment news is selected based on audience appeal and sensationalismFederal Communications Commission created in 1934Functions of MediaReporting the newsInterpreting the news gatekeepersInfluencing public opinion Setting the political agendaSocializing citizenry about politicsFox effect more conservative perspective5- Institutions (35-45%)CongressHouse 25 yrs old, citizen 7 years, serves 2 year terms based on population so closer to constituencyHouse originates revenue bills, chooses president if electoral college cannot, initiates impeachment proceedingsSenate 30 yrs old, citizen 9 years, serves 6 year terms every state gets 2 but ideally more wise and experiencedSenate approves presidential appointments and treaties and tries impeachmentsDescriptive representation is goal, but gerrymandering can happen during reapportionment every 10 years</p> <p>CongressLegislative ProcessIntroduction and assigned to committeeSubcommittee studies, holds hearings, debatesOriginal committee considers bill, if approved(Rules Committee in House only)Full House or Senate if two different bills, they must be reconciled in Conference CommitteeBack to full House or SenatePresident can sign or vetoCongress can override veto by 2/3 of each chamberCongressOversight making sure agencies are carrying out laws done by investigations, hearings (Katrina &amp; FEMA), requests reportsSpeaker of the House leader from majority party (Pelosi)Senate VP is technical leader (Biden), president pro tempore is honorary position given to most senior member (Byrd), real power is majority leader (Reid) Senate can filibuster talk a bill to death but since 1917 60 members can vote to invoke cloture to stop a filibuster/limit debateTrustee follow ones own ideas OR Delegate represent constituentsEarmarks/Pork-barrel spending result of negotiations and a cause of national deficitPresidency35 yrs old, natural born citizen, resident for 14 years, serves 4 year termsFormal powers from Constitution, inherent powers, executive orders, delegation of powers from Congress (FDR during Depression)White House Office/Executive Office (NSC, OMB, Economic Advisors, VP) closest to PresidentCabinet department secretaries too large, limited expertise, appointed for diversity or reputation therefore not as close to President</p> <p>PresidencyCharacterPower to PersuadeHoneymoon periodLine of Succession VP, House, Senate, Cabinet SecretariesDivided Government one party control presidency &amp; other control Congress can result in gridlockLine-Item Veto power to only reject parts of a bill President does not currently have but McCain and Feingold are pushing for to limit earmarksWar Powers Act 1973 Congress overrode Nixons veto to limit presidential commitment of troops without a declaration of warBureaucracy15 departmentsIndependent agencies (NASA)Regulatory agencies (FDA, EPA)Government corporations (TVA, Post Office)Civil Service hired based on merit rather than patronage Pendleton Act passed in 1883 after President Garfield assassinatedCongress gives agencies administrative discretion latitude to make policy because Congress does not have time or expertise and does not want the blameAmerica wants more services but smaller governmentReformsDeregulationCompetition and outsourcingPerformance standards</p> <p>JudiciarySupreme Court - 9 justices appointed by President, approved by Senate, serve life terms power of judicial reviewActivism loosely interpret existing laws and use their own values (Warren 53-69)Restraint adhere closely to existing lawsCases start in either US District Court or State Trial Courts, then go to Courts of Appeals, then finally to the Supreme Court Criminal vs. CivilPrecedent and stare decisis (let the decision stand) Solicitor General lawyer that represents US governmentAmicus curiae brief (friend of the court) information given to the court by an interested party who is not actually part of the trial</p> <p>Supreme CourtDecision Making150,000 cases from state and federal courts raise a federal question8,000 requests for review writ of certiorari (asking the court to review previous decision)Discuss list in conference (99% denied) must pass rule of four85 cases make it to the docketAttorneys submit written briefs (arguments)Hear oral arguments Conference ends in vote or judgmentOpinion assigned Unanimous all agree for same reasonsConcurrence agree but for different reasonsDissent disagree with majority decision</p> <p>6 Policy (5-15%)EconomicLaissez-faire no government interferenceKeynesian govt. adjusts fiscal policy (taxing and spending)...</p>


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