AP Exam Review for AP Government and Politics AP Exam is Tuesday, May 12, 2015.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> AP Exam Review for AP Government and Politics AP Exam is Tuesday, May 12, 2015 </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> The Constitution -Path to independence: Reasons: British expense of defending new territory won in the French and Indian War in 1763 led to new taxes on colonists -Influences of Enlightenment thinkers like John Locke (wrote Second Treatise of Civil Government). Belief in natural rights. -Declaration of Independence, July 4, 1776 </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> The Constitution -Continental Congress appointed committee to create a more formal union. Result was Articles of Confederation -Articles of Confederation created a unicameral legislature, each state had one vote, limited legislative powers, no judicial branch, powerless executive. State legislatures had most power. -Weaknesses: no powers to tax, regulate commerce, handle disputes between states. </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> The Constitution -Shays Rebellion in 1786 further revealed weaknesses of Articles of Confederation. -Constitutional Convention convened in 1787 to revise Articles of Confederation -Constitutional Conventions 55 delegates were mostly young, wealthy planters, lawyers or merchants. </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> The Constitution -Constitutional Conventions difficult issues: -Representation -Slavery -Voting -Economic issues -Individual rights </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> The Constitution -James Madison was primary architect of Constitution. His proposals included: -Separation of powers -Checks and balances -Limits on the majority -Federalism Delegates knew it was impractical for citizens to make all decisions. Constitution creates a republic, in which representatives make decisions. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> The Constitution -Ratification of the Constitution: - Supporters were federalists (or nationalists) - Opponents were anti-federalists (or states righters) -Federalist papers written by Alexander Hamilton, James Madison, John Jay, to support ratification. -Federalist #10 (Madison) warns about factions - Federalist #51 (Madison) checks and balances as solution to factions </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> The Constitution -Antifederalists feared a strong national government would be too distant and abusive, Congress would tax too heavily, Supreme Court would overrule state courts, President would lead a large standing army -Antifederalists wanted more protections for individual liberties in the Constitution. Later provided for in the Bill of Rights (first 10 amendments) -First states ratified original Constitution in 1787 </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> The Constitution -Changing the Constitution - Formal process (Article V) 2/3 vote in both houses of Congress, or national convention, of the states. Formal amendments have tended to emphasize equality and expand voting rights. - Informal process Judicial review by the Supreme Court, growth of political parties, expanded role of the president </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Federalism Federalism a political system in which power is shared between local units of government (states) and a national government -Federalism can allow state governments to block important national actions, prevent progress, protect local interests. -Supporters say it creates a unique, beneficial separation of power between national and state governments. </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Federalism -Constitution provides full faith and credit be given by each state to laws, records and court decisions of other states. -Founders goal: divide power between national state government to prevent hindering runaway power and assuring personal liberty. -10 th Amendment powers not delegated to U.S. by Constitutionreserved to the States respectively, or to the people. -Court interpretation of the 10 th Amendment has been inconsistent </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Federalism -Relationship between national government and the states in Constitution: - states cant make treaties, coin money - Article 1 (elastic clause) Congress has power to make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers) -Hamilton viewed national government as superior with broad powers. Jefferson viewed national government as having narrower powers. </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> Federalism -Evolution of federalism -McCulloch v. Maryland (1819) -Gibbons v. Ogden (1824) -Nullification controversy until Civil War -Post-Civil War - Dual federalism - national government supreme in its own sphere, state supreme in its own sphere -United States v. Lopez (1995) Congress cannot ban guns from schools under the commerce clause </li> <li> Slide 14 </li> <li> Federalism -Evolution of federalism -Recent trend has been toward devolution more state sovereignty has been reestablished A recent exception to this. -Affordable Care Act Cases (2012) While Congress cannot require people to purchase health insurance under the commerce clause, it may assess a penalty for failure to do so under its authority to tax. </li> <li> Slide 15 </li> <li> Federalism -Some argue dual federalism is outdated and cooperative federalism now prevails -Federalism and state money -Categorical grants -Block grants -Mandates conditions of aid can be attached to grants in aid. These are the primary ways the federal government pressures state governments to do what it wants. </li> <li> Slide 16 </li> <li> Theories of Democratic Government -Distribution of political power policy reflects views of those motivated to participate actively in policy-making. -Views to explain actions of the political elite: -Class view -Power elite view -Bureaucratic view -Pluralist view </li> <li> Slide 17 </li> <li> American Political Culture -Def.: distinctive and patterned way of thinking about how political and economic life ought to be carried out. -Americans tend to believe in the following about the political system -Liberty -Equality -Democracy -Civic duty -Individual responsibility </li> <li> Slide 18 </li> <li> American Political Culture -Americans tend to believe everyone should be equal politically, but not necessarily economically -Liberty Americans support free enterprise within certain boundaries -Equality Americans tolerate economic inequality more than political inequality -Individualism Americans believe individuals have a personal responsibility to take care of themselves. </li> <li> Slide 19 </li> <li> American Political Culture -American political culture also influenced by religion. -Gallup 54% of Americans attend worship services more than once a month, 82% consider themselves a religious person - Religious organizations are a major source of volunteer and community services </li> <li> Slide 20 </li> <li> American Political Culture -Two camps of the culture war -The orthodox morality more important than self-expression. Believe moral rules are commands from God and cannot be altered. Includes evangelical Christians. -The progressives personal freedom more important than traditional moral rules, which should be re-evaluated in modern life. Includes liberal Protestants and those with no religious beliefs. </li> <li> Slide 21 </li> <li> American Political Culture -Mistrust of Government -Declining faith in government since the turmoil of the 1960s (Vietnam War, protests) -Watergate in the 1970s -Clinton scandals in the 1990s -Patriotism, unified country after 9/11/2001 -Polling shows mistrust of government has risen again. (Iraq War, The Great Recession, Unpopular Congress, Obamacare) </li> <li> Slide 22 </li> <li> Public Opinion and Political Beliefs -Def.: collection of attitudes and views held by the general public. -Political socialization (sources of attitudes): -Family -Religion -Gender </li> <li> Slide 23 </li> <li> Public Opinion and Political Beliefs -Divisions among Americans in social opinion - Social class - Race and ethnicity - Region -Historical definitions of liberals and conservatives -Originally liberals favored personal and economic liberty, conservatives opposed excesses of the French Revolution </li> <li> Slide 24 </li> <li> Public Opinion and Political Beliefs -Definitions of liberals and conservatives since the New Deal of the 1930s -Liberals support active national government to intervene in the economy and create welfare programs -Conservatives support free market rather than a regulated one, states rights, more individual choice. </li> <li> Slide 25 </li> <li> Public Opinion and Political Beliefs -Political elites activists with a disproportionate amount of power in policy-making (such as officeholders, campaign workers, newspapers, head of interest groups). -Elite views shape mass views by influencing which issues capture the publics attention and how those issues are debated and decided. -There are many elites and many elite opinions (note than elite opinion is not the same as public opinion) </li> <li> Slide 26 </li> <li> Political Participation -Constitution originally left voter eligibility to the states -Evolution of voting rights -15 th Amendment (1870) cannot deny right to vote based on race -Grandfather clause unconstitutional (1915), -19 th Amendment (1920) provides women the right to vote -White primary unconstitutional (1944) </li> <li> Slide 27 </li> <li> Political Participation -Evolution of voting rights (continued) -Voting Rights Act of 1965 suspended all literacy tests -26 th Amendment (1971) lowered voting age to 18 -Voter turnout between 70% and 80% in the late 1800s. -Around 50% from 1970s to early 2000s. -57% in 2008 and 2012, highest since the 1960s </li> <li> Slide 28 </li> <li> Political Participation -Theories for historical decline in voter turnout -Weakening of competitiveness of parties -Politics has lost relevance to average voters -Voting fraud was once rampant and parties controlled the counting of votes, so historical numbers may not be accurate -Voter registration safeguards to combat fraud may have hurt turnout. (new voter ID laws could have further impact on turnout) </li> <li> Slide 29 </li> <li> Political Participation -Voter Participation (the following model assigns 6 levels of participation to Americans) -Inactive dont vote, low income, young -Voting specialists just vote, typically older -Campaigners vote, get involved, politically minded and opinionated -Communalists nonpartisan, active in community -Parochials avoid elections, but contact politicians about specific or personal problems -Activists highly educated, high income, middle-aged, participate in all forms of politics </li> <li> Slide 30 </li> <li> Elections and Campaigns -Presidential races -competitive, narrower margin of victory, campaign is multi-year commitment, huge sums of money must be raised, large paid staffs needed, thousands of volunteers, strategies and themes must be coordinated. -Incumbents defend records, challengers attack incumbents </li> <li> Slide 31 </li> <li> Elections and Campaigns -Presidential primaries -Begins with Iowa caucuses (small, precinct- level meetings to select party candidates) -New Hampshire traditionally has first primary. -Other states sometimes move their primary dates to maximize influence in the process and to gain media attention for their states issues </li> <li> Slide 32 </li> <li> Elections and Campaigns -Presidential primaries (continued) -Winners of party primaries tend to be the most liberal Democrats and the most conservative Republicans, reflecting the characteristics of the party elites -Dilemma for candidates: must be conservative enough for Republicans or liberal enough for Democrats to get their partys nomination, but mainstream enough to hold on to moderate voters in the general election. </li> <li> Slide 33 </li> <li> Elections and Campaigns -General election presidential campaigns -Types of campaign issues: -position issues (opposing views) -valence issues (not divisive, extent to which candidate emphasizes issue) -Modern campaigns waged through TV, debates, and direct mail -The Obama campaigns use of Internet fundraising and social media in 2008 and 2012 have changed how future campaigns will be run </li> <li> Slide 34 </li> <li> Elections and Campaigns -Congressional campaigns -Congressmen have a greater incumbency advantage (91% of incumbents re-elected) -Congressmen can take credit for grants, projects, programs in their district -House races can be affected by district boundaries: -Malapportionment -Gerrymandering -Whether its redistricting or gerrymandering, state legislatures draw house district boundaries. This allows politicians to choose the constituents of congressmen. </li> <li> Slide 35 </li> <li> Elections and Campaigns -Money and campaigning -Federal Campaign Reform Law (1974) $1,000 limit on individual donations per candidate per election (has since been raised to $2,600, allows PACs with $5,000 per election per candidate limit, created Federal Election Commission (FEC) -Citizens United v. FEC (2010) Supreme Court ruling allowing Super PACs, which spend unlimited money supporting, but not coordinating with, a candidate or supporting an issue. </li> <li> Slide 36 </li> <li> Political Parties Def.: group that seek to elect candidates to public office by giving those candidates an identification that is recognizable to the electorate. -History of parties -Founders disliked parties, but they quickly emerged. -Jeffersons supporters were Republicans (or Democratic-Republicans), Hamiltons supporters were Federalists </li> <li> Slide 37 </li> <li> Political Parties -History of parties (continued) -In the 1820s, Andrew Jacksons party, the Democrats, emerged as the first truly national party. Whigs emerged to oppose the Democrats. - Modern Republican Party began as an anti- slavery party in the 1850s and became a dominant force in the 1860s. -A North-South split would emerge: (Republicans dominate in North, Democrats in South) </li> <li> Slide 38 </li> <li> Political Parties -History of parties (continued) -The Civil Rights changes of 1960s would flip this alignment (Democrats dominant in the north, Republicans in the south) -More recently, party alignment has decayed. Voters identifying with a party has decreased, split ticket voting increased resulting in divided government. -Corruption of political machines has declined due to voter registration, civil service reform and the Hatch Act. -Voters depend less on the advice of parties and local party officials today than they have historically. </li> <li> Slide 39 </li> <li> Political Parties -Minor parties (or third parties) -Reasons third parties rarely succeed: -Most elections based on plurality -Electoral college winner-take-all principle for presidential elections -Election laws written by Republicans and Democrats </li> <li> Slide 40 </li> <li> Political Parties -Minor parties fall into one of four categories: -Ideological parties -One-issue parties -Economic protest parties -Factional parties </li> <li> Slide 41 </li> <li> Interest Groups -Def.: organization that seeks to influence public policy...</li></ul>

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