Angular Measure, Angular Speed, and Angular Velocity

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Text of Angular Measure, Angular Speed, and Angular Velocity

  • Slide 1
  • Angular Measure, Angular Speed, and Angular Velocity
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  • 1. A tube is been placed upon the 1 m-high table and shaped into a three-quarters circle. A golf ball is pushed into the tube at one end at high speed. The ball rolls through the tube and exits at the opposite end. Describe the path of the golf ball as it exits the tube. 2. If the 50g golf ball leaves the tube with a velocity of 32 m/s at 45 o, a) what is its maximum height, b) how long does it take to land, and c) what is the impulse force the ground exerts on the ball to bring it to a stop in 98 s?
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  • An arc of a circle is a "portion" of the circumference of the circle. The length of an arc is simply the length of its "portion" of the circumference. Actually, the circumference itself can be considered an arc length. The length of an arc (or arc length) is traditionally symbolized by s. The radian measure of a central angle of a circle is defined as the ratio of the length of the arc the angle subtends, s, divided by the radius of the circle, r.
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  • Relationship between Degrees and Radians: When the arc length equals an entire circumference, we can use s = r to get 2r= r and 2 = . This implies that 2 = 360 o Soand To change from degrees to radians, multiply by To change from radians to degrees, multiply by
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  • 1. Convert 50 to radians. 2. Convert /6 radians to degrees. 3. How long is the arc subtended by an angle of 7/4 radians on a circle of radius 20.000 cm? Answers: 1.5/18 radians 2.30 degrees 3.109.96 cm
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  • Circular motion is described using polar coordinates, (r, ) x=rcos and y = rsin , where is measured counterclockwise (ccw) from the positive x-axis. Angle is defined as = s/r, where s is the arc length, r is the radius, and is the angle in radians. Also expressed as s=r Angular distance, = - o is measured in degrees or radians. A radian is the angle that subtends an arc length that is equal to the radius (s=r) 1 rad = 57.3 o, or 2 rad = 360 o
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  • When you are watching the NASCAR Daytona 500, the 5.5 m long race car subtends an angle of 0.31 o. What is the distance from the race car to you?
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  • When moving in a circle, an object traverses a distance around the perimeter of the circle The distance of one complete cycle around the perimeter of a circle is known as the circumference This relationship between the circumference of a circle, the time to complete one cycle around the circle, and the speed of the object is merely an extension of the average speed equation
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  • The circumference of any circle can be computed using from the radius according to the equation relating the speed of an object moving in uniform circular motion to the radius of the circle and the time to make one cycle around the circle (period, T), where R=radius: Circumference = 2*pi*Radius
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  • Instantaneous angular speed is the magnitude of the instantaneous angular velocity Tangential (linear) speed and angular speed are related to each other through where r is the radius. The time it takes for an object to go through one revolution is called the period, T. Then number of revolutions in one second is called the frequency, f
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  • Velocity, being a vector, has both a magnitude and a direction Since an object is moving in a circle, its direction is continuously changing direction of the velocity vector is tangential to the circular path
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  • A bicycle wheel rotates uniformly through 2.0 revolutions in 4.0 s. a) What is the angular speed of the wheel? b) What is the tangential speed of a point 0.10 m from the center of the wheel? c) What is the period? d) What is the frequency?
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  • an accelerating object is an object which is changing its velocity. a change in either the magnitude or the direction constitutes a change in the velocity. an object moving in a circle at constant speed is accelerating because the direction of the velocity vector is changing.
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  • The acceleration of the object is in the same direction as the velocity change vector Objects moving in circles at a constant speed accelerate towards the center of the circle.
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  • The linear tangential velocity vector changes direction as the object moves along the circle. This acceleration is called centripetal acceleration (center-seeking) because it is always directed toward the center of the circle. The magnitude of centripetal acceleration is given by
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  • From Newtons Second Law, we conclude that there MUST be a net force associated with centripetal acceleration. Centripetal force is always directed toward the center of the circle since the net force on an object is in the same direction as acceleration.
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  • A car of mass 1500 kg is negotiating a flat circular curve of radius 50 m with a speed of 20 m/s. a) What is the source of the centripetal force on the car? Explain b) What is the magnitude of the centripetal acceleration of the car? c) What is the magnitude of the centripetal force on the car? d) What is the minimum coefficient of static friction between the car and the curve?
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  • Convert the following angles from degrees to radians or from radians to degrees, to two significant figures. -285 o 195 o -90 o -4/3 -270 o -3/4 165 o /3
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  • -285 o 195 o -90 o -4/3 -270 o -3/4 165 o /3 -5 rad or 1.6 3.4 rad or 1.08 -1.6 rad or /2 rad -240 o or4/3 rad -4.7 rad or 3/2 rad -135 o or 3/4 rad 2.9 rad or 0.92 rad 60 o or /3 rad
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  • Given: f = 0.5 Hz Solve: T = 1/f T= 1/0.5 Hz T= 2 s
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  • The record makes 45 revolutions every minute (60 s), so T = 60 s/45 rev. = 1.3 s r = 12 cm v = 2r/T = 2(12cm)/1.3s = 58 cm/s
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  • Given: r = 4.0 m, T = 2.0s v=2pir/T = 2pi(4.0m)/2.0s = 13 m/s a c = v 2 /r = 13 2 /4.0 m = 42 m/s 2
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  • In order to have an acceleration, there MUST be a force What provides that force? Tension Applied Force Friction Spring Force Gravitational Force
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  • The speed at which the object moves depends on the mass of the object and the tension in the cord The centripetal force is supplied by the tension
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  • The object is in equilibrium in the vertical direction and undergoes uniform circular motion in the horizontal direction v is independent of m
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  • The force of static friction supplies the centripetal force The maximum speed at which the car can negotiate the curve is
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  • There is a component of the normal force that supplies the centripetal force
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  • From the frame of the passenger (b), a force appears to push her toward the door From the frame of the Earth, the car applies a leftward force on the passenger The outward force is often called a centrifugal force It is a fictitious force due to the acceleration associated with the cars change in direction
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  • Centrifugal, not to be confused with centripetal, means away from the center or outward. Circular motion leaves the moving person with the sensation of being thrown OUTWARD from the center of the circle rather than INWARD Its really just inertia! http://www.physicsclassroom.com/mmedia/cir cmot/cf.cfm http://www.physicsclassroom.com/mmedia/cir cmot/cf.cfm
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  • Although fictitious forces are not real forces, they can have real effects Examples: Objects in the car do slide You feel pushed to the outside of a rotating platform The Coriolis force is responsible for the rotation of weather systems and ocean currents
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  • At the bottom of the loop, the upward force experienced by the object is greater than its weight Centripetal Force Vector ADDS to Normal Force Vector
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  • At the top of the circle, the force exerted on the object is less than its weight Centripetal Force Vector TAKES AWAY from the normal force
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  • Captain Chip, the pilot of a 60500 kg jet plane, is told he must remain in a holding pattern over the airport until it is his turn to land. If Captain Chip flies his plane in a circle whose radius is 50.0 km once every 30.0 min, what centripetal force must the air exert against the wings to keep the plane moving in a circle?
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  • Many racetracks have banked turns, which allow the cars to travel faster around the curves than if the curves were flat. Actually, cars could also make turns on these banked curves if there were no friction at all. Use a free body diagram to explain how this is possible.
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  • A car with a constant speed of 83.0 km/hr enters a circular flat curve with a radius of curvature of 0.400 km. If the friction between the road and the cars tir