Ancient Civilizations History Club. Ancient Civilizations The four ancient civilizations included Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, and China.

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<ul><li> Slide 1 </li> <li> Ancient Civilizations History Club </li> <li> Slide 2 </li> <li> Ancient Civilizations The four ancient civilizations included Egypt, Mesopotamia, India, and China. </li> <li> Slide 3 </li> <li> Mesopotamian Civilizations The first major Mesopotamian Civilization was the Sumerian Civilization. StartThe city-states of Ur, Erech, and Kish made up the Sumerian Civilization. Innovations and Inventions The Sumerian Civilization developed cuneiform (a type of writing), the wheel, a twelve month calendar, sixty math (sixty seconds, 360 degrees), land surveillance geometry, and architectural enhancements. ReligionThe Sumerians were polytheistic, meaning they worshiped multiple gods, however, each city state had its own god that was unique to its people. OtherZiggurats (temples) were built to appease the gods, and whenever a natural disaster occurred, it was believed to have been due to the anger of the gods. EndThe Sumerian Civilization fell to the city of Akkad to the north, which was in turn overrun by Babylon. An important thing to remember about Akkad is that is created the first code of laws. </li> <li> Slide 4 </li> <li> Mesopotamian Civilizations Babylon StartThe Babylonian Civilization rose to power after the Akkadians. Innovations and InventionsThe Code of Hammurabi took the concept of law one step further by distinguishing between major and minor offenses. It also extended equal justice to almost all peoples. ReligionPolytheistic Otherhttp://www.fordham.edu/halsall/ancient/hamcode.asp EndThe Babylonian Civilization fell to the invasions of the Kassites, which in turn fell to the Hittites. </li> <li> Slide 5 </li> <li> Mesopotamian Civilizations Hittites StartThe Hittites came into power after conquering the Kassites. Innovations and InventionsThe Hittites dominated the region largely due to their use of iron rather than bronze. ReligionPolytheistic Otherhttp://www.differencebetween.net/object/difference- between-iron-and-bronze/ EndThe Hittites were conquered by the Assyrians, who had mastered iron weapons and military discipline. </li> <li> Slide 6 </li> <li> Mesopotamian Civilizations Assyria StartThe Assyrian Civilization started after conquering the Hittites. Innovations and InventionsThe Assyrian Civilization adopted the technologies of its predecessors. ReligionPolytheistic OtherThe Assyrians, in response to uprisings, sent large groups of people into exile, thus encouraging cultural diffusion. EndThe Assyrians fell to the Medes and the Chaldeans. The Chaldean king, Nebuchadnezzar, rebuilt Babylon as a showplace of architecture and culture (The Princeton Review). However, this empire also fell, this time to the Persian Empire. </li> <li> Slide 7 </li> <li> Ancient Egypt StartKing Menes united the river valley and built a capital at Memphis. Innovations and InventionsThe Egyptians not only constructed things such as obelisks and pyramids, but they also developed a system of writing known as hieroglyphics and took an interest in astronomy which led to the development of a fairly reliable calendar (The Princeton Review). ReligionPolytheistic OtherUnlike in the Mesopotamian Societies which relied on the Tigris and Euphrates, Egyptian Farmers could rely on the predictable flooding of the Nile. EndN/A Obelisk </li> <li> Slide 8 </li> <li> Ancient Egypt: Social Structure Slaves Peasants Merchants and Artisans Nobles Pharaoh Priests Did you know that because the Pharaoh owned the kingdom (and thus all the land inside the kingdom), peasants were required to give him half of what they grew because it was grown on his land? In the afterlife, people were believed to play the same role in society that they had in their previous existence. </li> <li> Slide 9 </li> <li> The Harappan Civilization/ Indus River Valley Civilization http://archaeologyonline.net/artifacts/harappa- mohenjodaro http://archaeologyonline.net/artifacts/harappa- mohenjodaro StartThe specifics on the start of this civilization are unknown. Innovations and InventionsThe Harappan Civilization developed cities that were master-planned, uniformly constructed, and had sophisticated wastewater systems (The Princeton Review). ReligionPolytheistic OtherWhen a group of people known as the Aryans invaded the Indus River Valley, they brought with them the Vedas and the Upanishads, which acted as the basis for Hinduism. EndThere are various theories as to why the Harappan Civilization ended, which are included in the link above. </li> <li> Slide 10 </li> <li> Ancient China Shang Dynasty StartThe Shang Dynasty rose to power along the Hwang Ho River Valley (also known as the Yellow River Valley). Innovations and InventionsBronze workershorse drawn chariots, the wheel potterysilk productiona decimal system and a highly accurate calendar (The Princeton Review). Religionhttp://www.ushistory.org/civ/9b.asp Polytheistic OtherThe Shang were so isolated from other civilizations that they believed themselves to be the center of the world. Ancient Chinese Society was also heavily patriarchal, with the eldest male acting as the head of the family. EndThe Shang Dynasty was replaced by the Zhou dynasty around 1100 BC. </li> <li> Slide 11 </li> <li> Ancient China Zhou Dynasty StartThe Zhou Dynasty replaced the Shang Dynasty circa 1100 BC. Innovations and InventionsThe Zhou Dynasty adopted the technological developments of the Shang Dynasty. ReligionThe Zhou Dynasty held that rulers were subject to the Mandate of Heaven, which held that the heavens would only extend the position of emperor to strong and wise leaders. Other(On the next slide) EndEventually, though, fighting and warfare among the feudal kingdoms brought an end to the Zhou Dynasty in 256 BC (The Princeton Review). </li> <li> Slide 12 </li> <li> Ancient China Peasants The Emperor: Ruler of China Nobles: Controlled Small Pieces of Land Power Pyramid of Zhou China </li> <li> Slide 13 </li> <li> More Resources http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n7ndRwqJYDM &amp;list=PLBDA2E52FB1EF80C9 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=n7ndRwqJYDM &amp;list=PLBDA2E52FB1EF80C9 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sohXPx_XZ6Y&amp;li st=PLBDA2E52FB1EF80C9 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sohXPx_XZ6Y&amp;li st=PLBDA2E52FB1EF80C9 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z3Wvw6BivVI&amp;i ndex=4&amp;list=PLBDA2E52FB1EF80C9 http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Z3Wvw6BivVI&amp;i ndex=4&amp;list=PLBDA2E52FB1EF80C9 </li> </ul>

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