Ancient China Chapter 4. Ancient China I.Early Civilization in China A. The Geography of China 1. Natural Barriers a. ELEVATION: the height above sea.

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  • Ancient China Chapter 4
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  • Ancient China I.Early Civilization in China A. The Geography of China 1. Natural Barriers a. ELEVATION: the height above sea level; effects temperature and precipitation. b. isolated China c. Himalayas, Tian Shan, Gobi & Taklimakan Deserts, 3 major east- west rivers 2. Chinas Agricultural Revolution
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  • a. 7,000bc agricultural communities begin in river valleys b. LOESS: fine, yellowish-brown, rich soil great for farming c. 4,000-1,000bc Ag. Rev. in China d. yearly river floods & monsoons brought water e. irrigation brought water when needed f. Huang He = Yellow River; rice, grains, sheep, cattle g. people worked together to improve entire valley B. The Shang Dynasty
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  • 1. Shang Rulers a. first dynasty, Huang He valley b. 1,750-1,000bc c. Anyang & Zhengzhou important cities d. king led warrior-nobles to protect from invaders 2. Ancestor Worship a. ancestors brought good fortune b. gifts of food, drink & art were given for respect c. ORACLE: person, place, or thing that a god uses to reveal hidden knowledge; bones told future given by ancestors
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  • 3. Introduction of Writing a. First found in tombs on oracle bones b. writing used symbols & pictures c. helped to unify China C. Shang Society 1. Artisans & Merchants a. king warrior nobles/royal family peasants b. A&M no official rank in society c. made objects of silk, jade, & bronze d. trades spices & cowrie shells 2. Womens Roles a. some Shang women had rights
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  • b. Lady Hao, wife of King Wu Ding, lived 1,200bc; in charge of ceremonies, owned an estate, even led a large army 3. Silk Farming a. SERICULTURE: process of silk production est. in China 2,600bc b. womens responsibility c. men plough, women weave II. The Zhou, Qin, & Han Dynasties A. The Early Zhou 1. The Mandate of Heaven a. 1,000bc Zhou took power
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  • b. MANDATE OF HEAVEN: a claim of the divine right to rule c. heavens approval of the king 2. The Dynastic Cycles a. DYNASTIC CYCLE: explanation of the rise & fall of dynasties based on the Mandate of Heaven b. gains power being kind & truthful c. earthquakes & floods showed heavens displeasure d. new group would challenge the aging dynasty B. The Zhou Dynasty 1. Times of Economic Prosperity a. Wu Wang, first king of Zhou, granted land to lords, relatives, & generals
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  • b. farming was profitable c. blast furnace used to create iron d. trade expanded with use of bronze coins 2. Early Books a. education spread from upper classes to others b. Book of Songs 305 poems 3. Decline of the Zhou Dynasty a. 770-480bc lords became more powerful b. CIVIL WAR: war against groups of people from the same country c. 300 bc, only 7 territories survived
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  • C. The Qin Dynasty 1. The First Emperor a. Qin Shin Huangdi (Zheng) founded dynasty in 221bc b. AUTHORITARIAN: exerting complete power as a ruler c. Xiangyang capital city d. nobles ordered to capital, land divided among peasants; all paid high taxes; strict laws; harsh punishments; books burned e. Unity: coins, weights & measures; road & canal repairs 2. The Great Wall of China & the Final Days of the Qin Dynasty
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  • a. Huangdi ordered Great Wall b. Huandi died 202bc, son was overthrown, end of dynasty D. Rise & Fall of the Huang Dynasty 1. The Civil Service a. Liu Bang (202-195bc) used scholars & advice to est. Han dynasty, brought peace & prosperity b. Wudi built Silk Road for trade c. CIVIL SERVICE: people employed in govt administration d. 124bc Wudi est. school for civil service, examination needed for employment
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  • 2. From Golden Age to Decline a. improved silk factories; paper invented; stirrups for horses, wheelbarrow; plow with moveable parts b. pictures of daily life on woven tapestries; temples & palaces c. territory expanded from Korean to Vietnam d. ad220 warlords attacked, overthrew emperor III. Religions and Beliefs in Ancient China A. Confucianism 1. Social Order
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  • a. PHILOSOPHER: person who seeks wisdom or knowledge b. Kong Qiu = Confucius, b 551bc c. believed rulers should lead by a good example, based on Zhou d. people had obligation to obey superiors, superiors had obligation to treat inferiors fairly e. every man should be junzi, a princely man 2. The Five Relationships a. father and son b. older brother & younger brother c. husband & wife d. subject & ruler
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  • e. friend and friend f. harmony & balance is needed g. FILIAL PIETY: requirement that one must obey and respect ones parents 3. Analects and Confucian Influences a. Analects collection of his sayings, his beliefs b. Confucian officials became educated class in Han dynasty B. Daoism 1. The Laosi a. aka Classic of the Way and Its Power, beliefs of Daoism, written 500bc by Lao Dan, or 250bc
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  • b. Dao is energy that controls all events in universe c. YIN and YANG: 2 basic forces of universe according to Daoism d. Yin negative, dark, weak e. Yang positive, bright, strong f. work together for balance g. Zhuangzi by Zhwang Zhou dont worry about learning, working, fulfilling social obligations be free of spirits, meditate 2. Daoist Influences a. combined with popular myths, ancestor worship, local gods & seek of immortality
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  • b. Japan & Korea also affected c. emphasis on nature inspired arts C. Legalism and Buddhism 1. Legalism and the Qin a. LEGALISM: belief in strong laws & the power of a ruler to rewards & punish people in order to maintain control b. Xunzi Now the original nature of man is evil, so he must submit himself to teachers and laws before he can be just. c. Han Feizi people are children d. military replaced government
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  • e. permits needed to travel, heavy taxes, family groups responsible for punishing crimes 2. Buddhism Spreads to China a. came by Silk Road from India b. appeal: freedom from suffering 3. Reaction to Buddhism a. resented by Confucianists & Daoists b. believed it violated filial piety c. temples sometimes closed by emperor IV. Ancient Chinese Life & Culture A. The Family


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