Chapter 5 – Skeletal System Part III
Appendicular Skeleton – 126 bones of limbs, pectoral and pelvic girdles.
Bones of shoulder (pectoral) girdle are light, exceptionally flexible, easily dislocated.
Clavicle or collarbone
Scapula or shoulder blades
Bones of upper arm and forearm
Thirty separate bones compose the arm and forearm.
Bones of the handCarpals (8)Metacarpals (1-5)Phalanges (14)
Right Coxal BoneComparison of Male
and Female Pelvis
Bones of the Right Thigh and Leg
Bones of Right FootThe foot is composed of tarsals, metatarsals, and phalanges. Supports our body weight and serves as a lever that allows us to propel our bodies forward when we walk or run.
Tarsals (7)Metatarsals (5) Phalanges (14)
Joints of the BodyFunctional classification:Synarthroses - immovable joints (sutures in the skull)Amphiarthroses - slightly moveable joints (carpals)Diarthroses - freely moveable joints (limbs)
Structural Classification:Fibrous Cartilaginous Synovial
General Structure of a Synovial Joint
Types of Synovial Joints
Plane joint – wrist
Hinge joint – elbow
Pivot joint – elbow
Condyloid joint – knuckle
Saddle joint – thumb
Ball-and-socket joint – shoulder and hip
Inflammatory Disorders of the Joints
Bursitis - “water on the knee”, inflammation of bursae or synovial membrane.
Arthritis – inflammation or degenerative disease that damage the joints.
Osteoarthritis - most common form of arthritis. “Wear-and-tear arthritis”.
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) – onset 40 -50, more likely in women than men; autoimmune.
Gouty arthritis (gout) – uric acid crystals in the joints; more common in males; genetic.
Fetal SkeletonFontanels remain at birth to allow the brain to grow.
All areas are fully ossified by 2 yrs of age.
Adolescence ends when epiphyseal plates become fully ossified. Females at 18yrs and males at 21yrs.
Ossification centers in the skeleton of a 12 week fetus.