AMOS EDITED skill Acquisition Presentation

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OSIME AMOS UWADIALEPROGRAMME MANAGER McFELEY DEVELOPMENT ASSOCIATES PROGRAMME DIRECTORBISI OGUNJOBI FOUNDATION

10 JANUARY 2015

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THEME: PARADIGM SHIFT THINKING: TECHNICAL AND BUSINESS SKILLS ACQUISITION AS PANACEA FOR UNEMPLOYMENT IN NIGERIA.

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ORDER OF DISCUSSIONParadigm Shift Thinking: Technical and Business Skills Acquisition as Panacea for unemployment in Nigeria. 2Introduction - Greetings and Appreciation

Conceptual Framework : Definition of Unemployment

Trends and Pattern of Unemployment in Nigeria

Causes of Unemployment in Nigeria

Consequences of Unemployment

Employment Generation Programmes in Nigeria

Assessment of Past Employment Generation Programes

Recent Efforts by the Federal Government of Nigeria

Paradigm Shift Thinking to Technical and Business Skill Acquisition

Challenges Facing Entrepreneurship Education in Nigeria

Way Forward

Personal Experience

Conclusion

Donation

BibliographyParadigm Shift Thinking: Technical and Business Skills Acquisition as Panacea for unemployment in Nigeria. 3

1. Conceptual FrameworkDefinition of UnemploymentThe International Labour Organization (ILO) defines the unemployed as the number of the economically active population who is without work but available and seeking work, including people who have lost their jobs and those who have voluntarily left work.

Various forms of unemployment such as seasonal, cyclical, and structural unemployment exist in Nigeria.

Disparity in the incidence of unemployment between rural and urban areas, age brackets and gender.

Paradigm Shift Thinking: Technical and Business Skills Acquisition as Panacea for unemployment in Nigeria. 5

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Paradigm Shift Thinking: Technical and Business Skills Acquisition as Panacea for unemployment in Nigeria. Source: International Comparisons of Annual Labor Force Statistics, 1970-20126

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2.Trends and Pattern of Unemployment in NigeriaParadigm Shift Thinking: Technical and Business Skills Acquisition as Panacea for unemployment in Nigeria. Nigeria has a youth population of 80 million, representing about 60 percent of the total population with a growth rate of 2.6 percent per year.

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Percentage of unemployed persons ranged from 13 percent in year 2000, declined to 11.9 percent in 2005 and increased to 23.9 percent in 2011.

Youth population remains vibrant with an average annual entrant to the labour force of 1.8 million between 2006 and 2011.

Paradigm Shift Thinking: Technical and Business Skills Acquisition as Panacea for unemployment in Nigeria. The number of unemployed persons increased from 7 million in 2006 to 16 million in 2011 excluding the newly unemployed persons at 2 million equivalent to 23.9 percent of the labour force.Table 1: Overview of Nigeria Employment Situation in Nigeria (2006-2011)Nigeria Estimated Population200620072008200920102011140,431,790144,925,607149,563,227154,349,250159,288,426164,385,656Economically Active78,922,66681,448,19184,054,53386,744,27889,520,09592,384,738Labour Force57,455,70159,294,28361,191,70063,149,83565,170,62967,256,090Employed50,388,65051,763,90952,074,13750,709,31751,224,11551,181,884Unemployed7,067,0517,530,3749,117,56312,440,51713,946,51516,074,205Newly Unemployed463,3231,587,1893,322,9541,505,9972,127,691

Source: National Bureau of Statistics (2011) Annual Socio-Economic Report 41.6 percent of persons aged between 15 and 24 years were unemployed, while 21.3 percent of persons with post-secondary education were unemployed. The comparative data for male and female were 17 and 23.3 percent respectively.8

2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011Chart 3: Unemployed Persons in Nigeria (2006-2011)Source: National Bureau of Statistics (2011) Annual Socio-Economic Report Paradigm Shift Thinking: Technical and Business Skills Acquisition as Panacea for unemployment in Nigeria. 9

3.Causes of Unemployment in NigeriaParadigm Shift Thinking: Technical and Business Skills Acquisition as Panacea for unemployment in Nigeria. Rapid population growth of the country (140,431,790 as per 2006 census) which is projected to be over 180 million by 2020;

Declining industrial growth and low installed capacity utilization;

Outdated school curricula and inadequate technical and vocational schools as well as absence of entrepreneur skill acquisition programs;

Negative impact of various economic policy measures;

Poor implementation of government policies and programmes designed to address unemployment and job creation; and

High incidence of corruption 10Causes

4. Consequences of Unemployment Paradigm Shift Thinking: Technical and Business Skills Acquisition as Panacea for unemployment in Nigeria. Increase in level of poverty

Harbinger of violent and anti-social behaviors

High rate of insecurity and crime

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Increase in youth restiveness

Dehumanization

Craving for stomach infrastructure

The newly celebrated maxim in our political terminology stomach infrastructure - as a way of addressing citizen welfare, is no more than a way of inducing the population to support a particular candidate or party in an election by giving out goodies in exchange for their votes. Indeed, it is a form of corruption, which is a product of the increasing level of poverty and unemployment in the country.Idle youths engage in criminal activities and social vices as an alternative means of generating incomeConsequences of Unemployment.contd 12

We have a duty to enlighten the ordinary citizens on the fact that the clamour for stomach infrastructure and sharing of goodies is not a substitute for the provision of physical and social infrastructure, employment generation and job creation as well as the security of lives and property. Only good governance can assure citizens of equal access to opportunities that guarantee self-actualization and employment.Paradigm Shift Thinking: Technical and Business Skills Acquisition as Panacea for unemployment in Nigeria. 13

5. Employment Generation Programmes in NigeriaParadigm Shift Thinking: Technical and Business Skills Acquisition as Panacea for unemployment in Nigeria. General Yakubu Gowons National Accelerated Food Production Programme (NAFPP);

General Olusegun Obasanjos Operation Feed the Nation (OFN);

Alhaji Shehu Shagaris Green Revolution Programme (GRP);

General Ibrahim Babangida created the Directorate of Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure (DFRRI), National Agricultural Land Development Authority (NALDA);

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General Sani Abachas introduced Family Economic Advancement Programme (FEAP) and his wifes Family Support Programme (FSP);

Olusegun Obasanjos National Poverty Eradication Program (NAPEP), National Directorate of Employment (NDE) and National Economic Empowerment and Development Strategy (NEEDS);

Alhaji Umaru Musa Yaraduas Seven-Point Agenda; and

President Goodluck Jonathans Economic Transformation AgendaThese efforts have not resulted in significant reduction in youth unemployment. For example, it was estimated that NDE which was noted to be the most successful government agency for training youth for skill acquisition in employment generation and job creation (Akpasung 2006), including Open Apprenticeship Scheme In all only 914,230 less than one million benefited from the NDE programme during Obasanjo regime up to 2006 i.e 130,000 per annum.Paradigm Shift Thinking: Technical and Business Skills Acquisition as Panacea for unemployment in Nigeria. 15

6. Assessment of Past Employment Generation ProgrammesLack of commitment by the government.

Lack of effective coordination of the projects and programmes among government agencies and among the 3 tiers of government.

Lack build on approach leading to abandoned projects and reinventing the wheel.

Corruption! Corruption!! Corruption!!!

The overall conclusion is that none of the government programmes made a significant impact on job creation, employment generation and poverty reduction. Paradigm Shift Thinking: Technical and Business Skills Acquisition as Panacea for unemployment in Nigeria. 16

Paradigm Shift Thinking: Technical and Business Skills Acquisition as Panacea for unemployment in Nigeria. 7. Some Recent Efforts by the Federal Government of NigeriaTechnical Vocational Education and Training (TVET) Programme using the Subsidy Reinvestment and Empowerment Programme (SURE-P);

YOUWIN Programme;

Introduction of Entrepreneurship Education into the curricula of all tertiary institutions; SustainabilityFall in the price of crude oil in the world market since the 3rd quarter of 2014 raises concern on the sustainability of the SURE-P initiative.There is need for radical change in the approach to employment generation and poverty reduction programmes.17

Paradigm Shift Thinking to Technical and Business Skill Acquisition

Is it the Panacea to Unemployment in Nigeria?Paradigm Shift Thinking: Technical and Business Skills Acquisition as Panacea for unemployment in Nigeria. 18

There is the urgent need for a viable entrepreneurship model that would help tackle the endemic poverty, unemployment, illiteracy, chronic diseases, crimes, terrorism and insurgency.

The model must promote the development and growth of SMEs, wealth creation, enhance value reorientation, and preserve the ecosystem to achieve sustainable economic development.

Labour intensive construction activities.

Paradigm Shift Thinking: Technical