Alnor HVAC Handbook 2007

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Alnor HVAC Handbook

A Practical Guide to Performance Measurements in Mechanical Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning Systems

P/N 2980562 Rev A.

Copyright 2007 by TSI Incorporated

All Rights Reserved

ContentsContents........................................................................................................................................... i Introduction .................................................................................................................................... 1 General ........................................................................................................................................ 1 HVAC Systems, Comfort, and Energy Management................................................................... 1 TAB: Testing, Adjusting, and Balancing ...................................................................................... 2 Certification and Clean-air Measurements .................................................................................. 2 IAQ............................................................................................................................................... 3 Combustion Analysis ................................................................................................................... 3 Measurement Instrumentation...................................................................................................... 4 Capture Hoods............................................................................................................................. 4 Mechanical (Analog) Capture Hoods ......................................................................................4 Digital Capture Hoods ............................................................................................................. 5 Digital Capture Hoods with Differential Pressure Sensor........................................................ 6 Thermo-Anemometers (Hot-Wires) ............................................................................................. 6 Basic Thermo-Anemometers................................................................................................... 7 Thermo-Anemometers with Mathematical Calculations.......................................................... 7 Comprehensive Thermo-Anemometers ..................................................................................7 Rotating Vane Anemometers....................................................................................................... 8 Mechanical Rotating Vanes.....................................................................................................8 Digital Rotating Vanes............................................................................................................. 8 Deflecting Vane (Swinging Vane) Anemometers ........................................................................ 9 6000AP Velometer ................................................................................................................ 10 Velometer Jr .......................................................................................................................... 10 Manometers ............................................................................................................................... 10 Inclined Gauge Manometer ...................................................................................................11 Digital Micromanometer ........................................................................................................11 Digital Auto-Zeroing Micromanometer...................................................................................12 Pitot Tube .............................................................................................................................. 13 Hydronics ................................................................................................................................... 14 Mechanical Gauges............................................................................................................... 14 Digital Hydronic Manometers ................................................................................................15 IAQ: Ventilation and Carbon Dioxide......................................................................................... 15 Basic CO2 Instrumentation.....................................................................................................15 CO2 and Comfort Instrumentation .........................................................................................16 Thermo-Hygrometers: Temperature and Relative Humidity...................................................... 16 Basic Thermo-Hygrometers ..................................................................................................17 Datalogging Thermo-Hygrometers ........................................................................................17 Manual Gas Measurements (Combustion System)................................................................... 17 Portable Electronic Combustion Analysis Instruments .............................................................. 18 Continuous Emission Monitors .................................................................................................. 18 Measurement Basics ................................................................................................................... 19 HVAC System Performance ...................................................................................................... 19 Measuring Air Velocity and Air Volume at Supply Grilles/Diffusers ...................................... 19 Nonuniform Flow Corrections................................................................................................20 Static Pressure Measurement ...............................................................................................21 Exhaust Grille Measurements ...............................................................................................21 Duct Traversing: Low to High Velocities and at High Air Temperatures ...............................22 Measuring Air Velocity in Open Areas...................................................................................23Alnor HVAC Handbook i

Alnor HVAC Handbook

Testing and Certification ............................................................................................................ 23 Differential Pressure Measurement Between Two Rooms or Areas..................................... 23 Spray Booths ......................................................................................................................... 24 Laboratory Hoods .................................................................................................................. 24 Unit Ventilators ...................................................................................................................... 25 Measuring Slot Velocities ...................................................................................................... 25 Clean Room Testing and Certification .................................................................................. 26 Thermal Comfort and IAQ.......................................................................................................... 26 Air Temperature Measurement ............................................................................................. 26 Relative Humidity Measurement ...........................................................................................27 CO2 Measurements ............................................................................................................... 27 Taking Gas Samples ................................................................................................................. 28 Temperature and Draft Measurements ..................................................................................... 28 Soot Measurements................................................................................................................... 29 Appendixes................................................................................................................................... 30 Appendix APerforming a Duct Traverse ................................................................................ 30 Where to Take the Measurement..........................................................................................30 Traversing a Round Duct ...................................................................................................... 30 Traversing a Square Duct ..................................................................................................... 32 Appendix BCapture Hood Flow Resistance........................................................................... 33 Appendix CCharacterizing a Capture Hood to an Outlet Using a Correction Factor............. 34 Appendix DDetermining the Percentage of Outside Air Using Either Temperature or CO2 Measurements.............................................................................................................. 36 Appendix EAir Changes per Hour (ACH)............................................................................... 38 Appendix FThermal Comfort: Temperature and Humidity ..................................................... 39 Appendix GDensity Correction............................................................................................... 40 Density Correction for Thermo-Anemometers ...................................................................... 40 Density Correction for Pressure Based Manometers or Deflecting Vane Anemometers ..... 40 Appendix HUseful Calculations..........................................................