Alberts Uiaw

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Information Warfare 21st century

Text of Alberts Uiaw

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  • UnderstandingUnderstandingInformation AgeInformation AgeWarfareWarfare

    David S. AlbertsJohn J. Garstka

    Richard E. HayesDavid A. Signori

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Understanding information age warfare / David S. Alberts [et al.]. p. cm. Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 1-893723-04-6 (pbk.) 1. Information warfare. 2. Electronics in military engineering--United States. 3.Military planning--United States. I. Alberts, David S. (David Stephen), 1942-U163 .U49 2001355.343--dc21 2001043080

    August 2001

  • iTable of ContentsAcknowledgements...................................xi

    Preface.......................................................xiii

    Chapter 1: Introduction..............................1

    Chapter 2: The Language of InformationAge Warfare.................................................9

    Chapter 3: Information in Warfare..........35

    Chapter 4: Fundamentals of InformationSuperiority and Network CentricWarfare.......................................................53

    Chapter 5: Information Domain...............95

    Chapter 6: Cognitive Domain................119

    Chapter 7: Command and Control........131

    Chapter 8: What Is Collaboration?.......185

    Chapter 9: Synchronization...................205

    Chapter 10: Growing Body ofEvidence.................................................239

    Chapter 11: Assessment and the WayAhead........................................................285

    Bibliography.............................................301

    About the Authors...................................309

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  • iii

    List of FiguresFigure 1. From Theory to Practice............6

    Figure 2. The Domains.............................11

    Figure 3. Domain Relationships:Sensing ......................................................15

    Figure 4. Domain Relationships:Information.................................................16

    Figure 5. Domain Relationships:Knowledge.................................................17

    Figure 6. Domain Relationships:Awareness..................................................19

    Figure 7. Domain Relationships:Understanding..........................................20

    Figure 8. Domain Relationships:Decision .....................................................21

    Figure 9. Domain Relationships:Action ........................................................22

    Figure 10. Example: Entity OODALoop ...........................................................23

    Figure 11. Domain Relationships:Information Sharing..................................24

    Figure 12. Domain Relationships: SharedKnowledge.................................................26

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  • iv

    Figure 13. Domain Relationships:Shared Awareness...................................27

    Figure 14. Domain Relationships:Collaboration............................................28

    Figure 15. Domain Relationships:Synchronization........................................29

    Figure 16. Hierarchy of Measures...........32

    Figure 17. Information War: Value ofKnowledge.................................................35

    Figure 18. Carl von Clausewitz...............36

    Figure 19. Impact of Fog and Friction onEffectiveness.............................................38

    Figure 20. Advances in the InformationCapabilities................................................40

    Figure 21. The Information Domain........47

    Figure 22. Richness, Reach, and Qualityof Interaction..............................................48

    Figure 23. Value Creation.........................61

    Figure 24. Network Attributes.................63

    Figure 25. Network Comparison.............64

    Figure 26. Commercial Example.............65

    Figure 27. Comparing BusinessModels.......................................................66

  • vFigure 28. Military Value Chain...............67

    Figure 29. Comparing WarfightingModels ........................................................69

    Figure 30. Networking the Force.............69

    Figure 31. Networking the Force(con.) .........................................................70

    Figure 32. Platform vs. Network-CentricAwareness..................................................71

    Figure 33. New Mental Model..................72

    Figure 34. Domain Interactions...............73

    Figure 35. Information Elements.............73

    Figure 36. Cognitive Elements................74

    Figure 37. Physical Elements..................75

    Figure 38. Network Centric Warfare ValueChain...........................................................76

    Figure 39. Value Chain Links ofInformation Superiority and NetworkCentric Warfare.........................................77

    Figure 40. Linkage Models and Indicantsof Information Value.................................80

    Figure 41. Determination of SystemsUtility...........................................................92

    Figure 42. Information Domain: Attributesof Information Richness...........................96

  • vi

    Figure 43. Information Domain: Attributesof Information Reach................................99

    Figure 44. Information Domain: Quality ofInteraction................................................101

    Figure 45. Information Domain: KeyRelationships...........................................104

    Figure 46. Relative InformationAdvantage...............................................108

    Figure 47. Impact of InformationOperations................................................110

    Figure 48. Information Needs................111

    Figure 49. Information Domain:Measuring an InformationAdvantage.............................................116

    Figure 50. Reference Model: ConceptualFramework...............................................120

    Figure 51. Reference Model: TheSituation..................................................121

    Figure 52. Battlespace Awareness.......122

    Figure 53. Reference Model: Componentsof Situational Awareness.......................124

    Figure 54. Shared Awareness...............126

    Figure 55. Achieving SharedAwareness..............................................127

  • vii

    Figure 56. Traditional View of C2: OODALoop ..........................................................132

    Figure 57. Joint Hierarchical and CyclicalOperational Activity Model....................135

    Figure 58. Traditional C4ISRProcess ..................................................137

    Figure 59. C4ISR Process Today..........146

    Figure 60. Greater Integration...............149

    Figure 61. Greater Integration and ImpliedDecision Types........................................153

    Figure 62. Overall AnticipatedIntegration..............................................158

    Figure 63. Structure, Function, Capacity,and Their Impacts...................................164

    Figure 64. Historical Choices Among C2System Philosophy.................................170

    Figure 65. Capacity Requirements forDifferent Command Arrangements......176

    Figure 66. Spectrum of C2 OrganizationOptions .....................................................181

    Figure 67. Information Age C2Organizations..........................................183

    Figure 68. How Does Networking EnableSynchronization?....................................216

  • viii

    Figure 69. What Is the Role of Planning inSynchronization?....................................221

    Figure 70. What Type of C2 Concept IsAppropriate for a Given Mission?.........224

    Figure 71. Illustrative Attributes for KeyInformation Superiority Concepts Relatedto Hypotheses RegardingSynchronization......................................229

    Figure 72. Synchronization Value.........232

    Figure 73. Synchronization Profiles.....234

    Figure 74. Growing Body ofEvidence................................................235

    Figure 75. Assessment of the EmergingEvidence...................................................240

    Figure 76. Network Centric MaturityModel .......................................................241

    Figure 77. Air-to-Air: ImprovedInformation Position...............................245

    Figure 78. Coupled OODA Loops: VoiceOnly...........................................................246

    Figure 79. Air-to-Air: Tactical Situation: 4vs. 4...........................................................247

    Figure 80. Voice vs. Voice Plus DataLinks .........................................................248

  • ix

    Figure 81. Coupled OODA Loops: VoicePlus Data..................................................249

    Figure 82. Air-to-Air: Relative InformationAdvantage................................................250

    Figure 83. Air-to-Air................................254

    Figure 84. Maneuver...............................271

    Figure 85. Theater Air and MissileDefense Process.....................................275

    Figure 86. Impact of Network CentricTAMD ........................................................276

    Figure 87.