Albert Einstein - Wikiquote

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<p>Albert EinsteinFrom Wikiquote Albert Einstein (14 March 1879 18 April 1955) was an agnostic Jewish German-Swiss-Austrian-American physicist who is widely regarded as one of the most influential scientists of all time. He is best-known for his Special and General Theories of Relativity, but contributed in other areas of physics. He became famous for his explanation of the photoelectric effect (for which he received the Nobel Prize).</p> <p>Contents1 Sourced 1.1 General sources 1.1.1 Youth 1.1.2 1900s 1.1.3 1910s 1.1.4 1920s 1.1.5 1930s 1.1.6 1940s 1.1.7 1950s 1.1.8 Posthumous publications 1.2 Principles of Research (1918) 1.3 Viereck interview (1929) 1.4 Wisehart interview (1930?) 1.5 Religion and Science (1930) 1.6 Mein Weltbild (1931) 1.7 My Credo (1932) 1.8 Obituary for Emmy Noether (1935) 1.9 Science and Religion (1941) 1.10 Only Then Shall We Find Courage (1946) 1.11 Religion and Science: Irreconcilable? (1948) 1.12 The World As I See It (1949) 1.13 "Why Socialism?" (1949) 1.14 On the Generalized Theory of Gravitation (1950) 1.15 Out of My Later Years (1950) 1.16 Essay to Leo Baeck (1953) 1.17 Albert Einstein: The Human Side (1954) 1.18 Albert Einstein: A guide for the perplexed (1979) 1.19 Sidelights on Relativity (1983) 1.20 Einstein's God (1997) 1.21 Einstein and Religion (1999) 2 Disputed 3 Misattributed 4 Quotes about Einstein 5 External links</p> <p>A hundred times every day I remind myself that my inner and outer life are based on the labors of other men, living and dead, and that I must exert myself in order to give in the same measure as I have received and am still receiving...</p> <p>A happy man is too satisfied with the present to dwell too much on the future.</p> <p>SourcedGeneral sourcesYouth A happy man is too satisfied with the present to dwell too much on the future. "My Future Plans" an essay written at age 17 for school exam (18 September 1896) The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein Vol. 1 (1987) Doc. 22 1900s Dear Habicht, / Such a solemn air of silence has descended between us that I almost feel as if I am committing a sacrilege when I break it now with some inconsequential babble... / What are you up to, you frozen whale, you smoked, dried, canned piece of soul...? Opening of a letter to his friend Conrad Habicht in which he describes his four revolutionary "Annus Mirabilis" papers. (May 1905)Mass and energy are both but different manifestations of the same thing a somewhat unfamiliar conception for the average mind.</p> <p>E = mc The equivalence of matter and energy was originally expressed by the equation m = L/c, which easily translates into the far more well known E = mc in Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content? (http://www.fourmilab.ch/etexts/einstein/E_mc2/www/) published in the Annalen der Physik (27 September 1905) : "If a body gives off the energy L in the form of radiation, its mass diminishes by L/c." In a later statement explaining the ideas expressed by this equation, Einstein summarized: "It followed from the special theory of relativity that mass and energy are both but different manifestations of the same thing a somewhat unfamiliar conception for the average mind. Furthermore, the equation E = mc, in which energy is put equal to mass, multiplied by the square of the velocity of light, showed that very small amounts of mass may be converted into a very large amount of energy and vice versa. The mass and energy were in fact equivalent, according to the formula mentioned before. This was demonstrated by Cockcroft and</p> <p>Walton in 1932, experimentally." Atomic Physics (1948) by the J. Arthur Rank Organisation, Ltd. (mp3 audio file of Einstein's voice (http://www.aip.org/history/einstein/sound/voice1.mp3) ) We shall therefore assume the complete physical equivalence of a gravitational field and a corresponding acceleration of the reference system. Statement of the equivalence principle in Yearbook of Radioactivity and Electronics (1907) 1910s How does it happen that a properly endowed natural scientist comes to concern himself with epistemology? Is there not some more valuable work to be done in his specialty? That's what I hear many of my colleagues ask, and I sense it from many more. But I cannot share this sentiment. When I think about the ablest students whom I have encountered in my teaching that is, those who distinguish themselves by their independence of judgment and not just their quick-wittedness I can affirm that they had a vigorous interest in epistemology. They happily began discussions about the goals and methods of science, and they showed unequivocally, through tenacious defense of their views, that the subject seemed important to them . Concepts that have proven useful in ordering things easily achieve such authority over us that we forget their earthly origins and accept them as unalterable givens. Thus they might come to be stamped as "necessities of thought," "a priori givens," etc. The path of scientific progress is often made impassable for a long time by such errors. Therefore it is by no means an idle game if we become practiced in analysing long-held commonplace concepts and showing the circumstances on which their justification and usefulness depend, and how they have grown up, individually, out of the givens of experience. Thus their excessive authority will be broken. They will be removed if they cannot be properly legitimated, corrected if their correlation with given things be far too superfluous, or replaced if a new system can be established that we prefer for whatever reason. Obituary for physicist and philosopher Ernst Mach, Physikalische Zeitschrift 17 (1916) I am by heritage a Jew, by citizenship a Swiss, and by makeup a human being, and only a human being, without any special attachment to any state or national entity whatsoever. Letter to Alfred Kneser (7 June 1918); Doc. 560 in The Collected Papers of Albert Einstein Vol. 8 I have also considered many scientific plans during my pushing you around in your pram! Letter to his son Hans Albert Einstein (June 1918) Make a lot of walks to get healthy and dont read that much but save yourself some until youre grown up. Letter to his son Eduard Einstein (June 1918) Dear mother! Today a joyful notice. H. A. Lorentz has telegraphed me that the English expeditions have really proven the deflection of light at the sun. Postcard to his mother Pauline Einstein (1919) By an application of the theory of relativity to the taste of readers, today in Germany I am called a German man of science, and in England I am represented as a Swiss Jew. If I come to be represented as a bte noire, the descriptions will be reversed, and I shall become a Swiss Jew for the Germans and a German man of science for the English! Statement to The Times [London] (28 November 1919), quoted in The New Quotable Einstein (2005) by Alice Calaprice (http://press.princeton.edu/chapters/s7921.html) ISBN 0-691-12075-7 Variant: If my theory of relativity is proven successful, Germany will claim me as a German and France will declare that I am a citizen of the world. Should my theory prove untrue, France will say that I am a German and Germany will declare that I am a Jew. (Address to the French Philosophical Society at the Sorbonne (6 April 1922); French press clipping (7 April 1922) [Einstein Archive 36-378] and Berliner Tageblatt (8 April 1922) [Einstein Archive 79-535]) Variant translation: If my theory of relativity is proven correct, Germany will claim me as a German and France will say I am a man of the world. If it's proven wrong, France will say I am a German and Germany will say I am a Jew. Variant: If relativity is proved right the Germans will call me a German, the Swiss will call me a Swiss citizen, and the French will call me a great scientist. If relativity is proved wrong the French will call me a Swiss, the Swiss will call me a German and the Germans will call me a Jew. 1920s How much do I love that noble man More than I could tell with words I fear though he'll remain alone With a holy halo of his own. Poem by Einstein on Spinoza (1920), as quoted in Einstein and Religion (1999) by Max Jammer "Einstein's Poem on Spinoza" (with scans of original German manuscript) at Leiden Institute of Physics, Leiden University (http://www.lorentz.leidenuniv.nl/history/Einsteins_poem/Spinoza.html) We may assume the existence of an aether; only we must give up ascribing a definite state of motion to it, i.e. we must by abstraction take from it the last mechanical characteristic which Lorentz had still left it. But this ether may not be thought of as endowed with the quality characteristic of ponderable inedia, as consisting of parts which may be tracked through time. The idea of motion may not be applied to it. On the irrelevance of the luminiferous aether hypothesis to physical measurements, in an address at the University of Leiden (5 May 1920) I am neither a German citizen, nor do I believe in anything that can be described as a "Jewish faith." But I am a Jew and glad to belong to the Jewish people, though I do not regard it in any way as chosen. Letter to Central Association of German Citizens of the Jewish Faith, 3 [5] April 1920, as quoted in Alice Calaprice, The Ultimate Quotable Einstein (2010), p. 195; citing Israelitisches Wochenblatt, 42 September 1920, CAPE, Vol. 7, Doc. 37, and Vol. 9, Doc 368. Raffiniert ist der Herrgott, aber boshaft ist er nicht.It is by no means an idle game if we become practiced in analyzing long-held commonplace concepts and showing the circumstances on which their justification and usefulness depend... Concepts that have proven useful in ordering things easily achieve such authority over us that we forget their earthly origins and accept them as unalterable givens.</p> <p>If my theory of relativity is proven successful, Germany will claim me as a German and France will declare that I am a citizen of the world. Should my theory prove untrue, France will say that I am a German and Germany will declare that I am a Jew.</p> <p>How much do I love that noble man More than I could tell with words</p> <p>Subtle is the Lord, but malicious He is not. Remark made during Einstein's first visit to Princeton University. (April 1921)] as quoted in Einstein (1973) by R.W. Clark, Ch. 14. "God is slick, but he aint mean" is a variant translation of this (1946) Unsourced variant: "God is subtle but he is not malicious." When asked what he meant by this he replied. "Nature hides her secret because of her essential loftiness, but not by means of ruse." (Die Natur verbirgt ihr Geheimnis durch die Erhabenheit ihres Wesens, aber nicht durch List.) As quoted in Subtle is the Lord The Science and the Life of Albert Einstein (1982) by Abraham Pais einsteinandreligion.com (http://www.einsteinandreligion.com/faith.html) Originally said to Princeton University mathematics professor Oscar Veblen, May 1921, while Einstein was in Princeton for a series of lectures, upon hearing that an experimental result by Dayton C. Miller of Cleveland, if true, would contradict his theory of gravitation. But the result turned out to be false. Some say by this remark Einstein meant that Nature hides her secrets by being subtle, while others say he meant that nature is mischievous but not bent on trickery. [The Yale Book of Quotations, ed. Fred R. Shapiro, 2006] Variant translation: God may be sophisticated, but he's not malicious. As quoted in Cherished Illusions (2005) by Sarah Stern, p. 109 I have second thoughts. Maybe God is malicious. Said to Vladimir Bargmann, as quoted in Einstein in America (1985) by Jamie Sayen , indicating that God leads people to believe they understand things that they actually are far from understanding; also in The Yale Book of Quotations (2006), ed. Fred R. Shapiro I was sitting in a chair in the patent office at Bern when all of sudden a thought occurred to me: If a person falls freely he will not feel his own weight. I was startled. This simple thought made a deep impression on me. It impelled me toward a theory of gravitation. Einstein in his Kyoto address (14 December 1922), talking about the events of "probably the 2nd or 3rd weeks" of October 1907, quoted in Why Did Einstein Put So Much Emphasis on the Equivalence Principle? by Dr. Robert J. Heaston (http://www.worldnpa.org/pdf/abstracts/abstracts_23.pdf) in Equivalence Principle April 2008 (15th NPA Conference) who cites A. Einstein. How I Constructed the Theory of Relativity, Translated by Masahiro Morikawa from the text recorded in Japanese by Jun Ishiwara, Association of Asia Pacific Physical Societies (AAPPS) Bulletin, Vol. 15, No. 2, pp. 17-19 (April 2005). Quantum mechanics is certainly imposing. But an inner voice tells me that it is not yet the real thing. The theory says a lot, but does not really bring us any closer to the secret of the "old one." I, at any rate, am convinced that He does not throw dice. Letter to Max Born (4 December 1926); The Born-Einstein Letters (translated by Irene Born) (Walker and Company, New York, 1971) ISBN 0-8027-0326-7. This quote is commonly paraphrased "God does not play dice" or "God does not play dice with the universe", and other slight variants. Whether you can observe a thing or not depends on the theory which you use. It is the theory which decides what can be observed. Objecting to the placing of observables at the heart of the new quantum mechanics, during Heisenberg's 1926 lecture at Berlin; related by Heisenberg, quoted in Unification of Fundamental Forces (1990) by Abdus Salam ISBN 0521371406 Try and penetrate with our limited means the secrets of nature and you will find that, behind all the discernible concatenations, there remains something subtle, intangible and inexplicable. Veneration for this force beyond anything that we can comprehend is my religion. To that extent I am, in point of fact, religious. Response to atheist Alfred Kerr in the winter of 1927, who after deriding ideas of God and religion at a dinner party in the home of the publisher Samuel Fischer, had queried him "I hear that you are supposed to be deeply religious" as quoted in The Diary of a Cosmopolitan (1971) by H. G. Kessler I believe in Spinoza's God, Who reveals Himself in the lawful harmony of the world, not in a God Who concerns Himself with the fate and the doings of mankind. In response the telegrammed question of New York's Rabbi Herbert S. Goldstein in (24 April 1929): "Do you believe in God? Stop. Answer paid 50 words." Einstein replied in only 25 (German) words. Spinoza's ideas of God are often characterized as being pantheistic. Expanding on this he later wrote: "I can understand your aversion to the use of the term 'religion' to describe an emotional and psychological attitude which shows itself most clearly in Spinoza... I have not found a better expression than 'religious' for the trust in the rational nature of reality that is, at least to a certain extent, accessible to human reason." As quoted in Einstein : Science...</p>

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