Albenda_Ornamental Wall Painting in the Art of the Assyrian Empire

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ORNAMENTAL WALL PAINTING

CUNEIFORM MONOGRAPHS 28Managing Editor Geerd Haayer

Edited by

T. Abusch, M.J. Geller, M.P. Maidman S.M. Maul and F.A.M. Wiggermann

BRILL ST YXLEIDEN BOSTON 2005

CUNEIFORM MONOGRAPHS 28

ORNAMENTAL WALL PAINTING IN THE ART OF THE ASSYRIAN EMPIREby

Pauline Albenda

BRILL ST YXLEIDEN BOSTON 2005

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Albenda, Pauline Ornamental wall painting in the art of the Assyrian Empire / by Pauline Albenda. p. cm. (Cuneiform Monographs; ISSN 09290052 ; 28) Includes bibliographical references and indexes. ISBN 9004141545 1. Mural painting and decoration, Assyro-BabylonianThemes, motives. 2. Mural painting and decoration, AncientIraqThemes, motives. I. Title. II. Series. ND2819.17A23 2004 751.7 3 0935dc22 2004057556

ISSN 09290052 ISBN 90 04 14154 5c Copyright 2005 by Styx/Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, The Netherlands All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without prior written permission from the publisher. Authorization to photocopy items for internal or personal use is granted by Brill provided that the appropriate fees are paid directly to The Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Suite 910 Danvers MA 01923, USA. Fees are subject to change.PRINTED IN THE NETHERLANDS

Dedicated to David, Anne, Rose, and Stella

v

TABLE OF CONTENTS List of Illustrations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ix Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xiii Chapter I. Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter II. Discoveries of the Wall Paintings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ninth Century B.C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nimrud . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fort Shalmaneser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Ninth to Eighth Centuries B.C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nimrud, upper chambers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Nimrud, outer town . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Al Rimah . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Late Eighth Century B.C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Khorsabad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Late Eighth and Seventh Centuries B.C. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arslan Tash . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Til Barsip, building E . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Tell Sheikh Hamad . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Fort Shalmaneser . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Overview of the Discoveries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter III. Til Barsip . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Room 26 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Rooms 25 and 27 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Room 46 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Room 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Room 21 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Room 24 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Room 47 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Room 22 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Til Barsip Textile Patterns . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Discussion of Textile Designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Dating the Til Barsip Wall Paintings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1 9 10 10 14 14 14 20 21 21 21 25 25 27 27 29 30 33 36 38 40 43 44 47 50 51 52 55 66 69

vii

Table of Contents Chapter IV The Ornamental Painted Designs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Ornamental Compositions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Symmetries of the Ornaments . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . The Ornamental Motifs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Single Motif . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Guilloche . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Arcaded Garlands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Symmetrical Grouping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Animal Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Figural Group . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75 76 82 84 84 101 106 118 118 127

Chapter V Concluding Commentary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 129 . Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 137 Indices . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index of Akkadian words . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Index of Proper names . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Subject Index . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 145 145 145 148

viii

LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS

Figures Figure 1a Reconstructed wall painting from Northwest Palace, Nimrud. Redrawn. Layard 1849b, pl. 84. Figure 1b Painted guilloche design from Northwest Palace, Nimrud. Redrawn. Tomabechi 1986, g. 6. Figure 2 Top left: painted fragment of hexagon and alternating rows of circles and rosettes. Redrawn and expanded. Loud 1936, pl. I: 5. Top right: painted fragments of hexagon designs from room 12, Khorsabad. Redrawn and expanded. Loud 1936, pl. I: 2. Bottom left: painted fragment of circle design from room 12, Khorsabad. Redrawn and expanded. Loud 1936, pl. I: 3. Bottom right: painted fragment of grid design from the throne room, Khorsabad. Redrawn and expanded. Loud 1936, pl. III: 8. Figure 3 Painted fragments of pattern motifs from the throne room, Khorsabad. Loud 1936, pl. III: 7, 10.

Figure 4a Wall painting from royal apartments, Arslan Tash. Redrawn. Thureau-Dangin et al. 1931, pl. XLVIII:1. Figure 4b Wall painting from small apartment, Arslan Tash. ThureauDangin et al 1931, pl. XLVIII: 2. Figure 4c Painted fragments and reconstruction of wall painting from building E, Til Barsip. Abbate 1997, g. 3. Figure 5a Wall painting with design of circles and stripes, from building G at Dur-Katlimmu. Nunn 1988, g. 101. Figure 5b Wall painting with garden scene, from room B, building G. at Dur-Katlimmu. Khne 1989, Abb. 138. Figure 5c Wall painting with ostriches and band of concentric circles, Dur-Katlimmu. Khne 1993, g. 6. Figure 6 Wall Painting from throne room S5, Fort Shalmaneser. Mallowan 1966, pl. 308.

ix

List of Illustrations Figure 7 Plan of royal residence at Til Barsip. Redrawn. Thureau-Dangin and Dunand 1936, plan B.

Plates Plate 1 Plate 2 Plate 3 Plate 4 Plate 5 Plate 6 Plate 7 Plate 8 Plate 9 Layard, drawing of ornamental wall painting from the Northwest Palace. Original Drawings. III, 86c. British Museum. Fragments of painted bricks from the Northwest Palace. Layard 1849b, pl. 84. British Museum. Layard, drawings of (left) upper chamber A, (right) upper chamber B. Original Drawings III, 80. British Museum. Layard, drawing of upper chamber A. Original Drawings III, 79. British Museum. Layard, drawings of (left) upper chamber C, (right) upper chamber B. Original Drawings III, 85. British Museum. Layard, drawing of painted ornament (unnished). Original Drawings III, 82. British Museum. Boutcher, drawings of painted bricks and wall designs. Original Drawings I, 30. British Museum. Boutcher, detail of painted design, no. 2. Original Drawings I, 30. British Museum. Cavro, ornamental wall painting with goats. Room 26 in the Assyrian palace at Til Barsip. Th