ALAdwani Dis

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    MECHANISTIC MODELING OF AN UNDERBALANCED DRILLING OPERATIONUTILIZING SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE

    A Dissertation

    Submitted to the Graduate Faculty of theLouisiana State University and

    Agricultural and Mechanical Collegein partial fulfillment of theRequirements for the degree of

    Doctor of Philosophy

    in

    The Department of Petroleum Engineering

    byFaisal Abdullah ALAdwani

    B.S., Kuwait University, 1998M.S., Louisiana State University, 2003

    August, 2007

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    iii

    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .............................................................................................................. ii

    LIST OF TABLES.......................................................................................................................... v

    LIST OF FIGURES ....................................................................................................................... vi

    ABSTRACT................................................................................................................................... ix

    CHAPTER 1. INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................... 11.1 Underbalanced Drilling......................................................................................................... 21.2 Air and Gaseous Drilling Fluids ........................................................................................... 41.3 Statement of Problem............................................................................................................ 5

    CHAPTER 2. PROBLEM DESCRIPTION ................................................................................... 7

    CHAPTER 3. LITERATURE REVIEW ...................................................................................... 103.1 Coil Tubing Drilling with SC-CO 2 ..................................................................................... 103.2 Fluid Properties Model ....................................................................................................... 103.2 Heat Transfer Model ........................................................................................................... 113.3 Gas Volume Requirements ................................................................................................. 113.4 Circulation Model ............................................................................................................... 11

    3.4.1 Single Phase Gas Flow................................................................................................. 113.4.2 Two Phase Flow........................................................................................................... 12

    CHAPTER 4. METHODOLOGY ................................................................................................ 14

    CHAPTER 5. FLUID PROPERTIES MODEL............................................................................ 16

    CHAPTER 6. HEAT TRANSFER MODEL................................................................................ 216.1 Development of Heat Transfer Model for Single Phase Flow............................................ 216.2 Development of Heat Transfer Model with Formation Water Influxes ............................. 266.3 Sample Calculations............................................................................................................ 29

    6.3.1 Single Phase Flow Heat Transfer Model ..................................................................... 296.3.2 Two Phase Flow Heat Transfer Model ........................................................................ 33

    CHAPTER 7. CIRCULATION MODEL..................................................................................... 36

    7.1 Model Assumptions ............................................................................................................ 367.2 Calculation Procedure......................................................................................................... 387.3 Single Phase Gas Flow Model Development...................................................................... 407.4 Multiphase Flow Mechanistic Model Development........................................................... 44

    7.4.1 Model Assumptions ..................................................................................................... 447.4.2 Multiphase Flow Parameters........................................................................................ 457.4.3 Two Phase Flow Patterns............................................................................................. 467.4.4 UBD Flow Patterns ...................................................................................................... 48

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    7.4.5 Flow Pattern Prediction Models................................................................................... 497.4.6 Flow Behavior Prediction Models ............................................................................... 52

    7.5 Pressure Drop across Bit Nozzles ....................................................................................... 577.6 Minimum Gas Volume Requirements ................................................................................ 587.7 Computer Program Description .......................................................................................... 60

    7.7.1 Algorithm..................................................................................................................... 60

    CHAPTER 8. CALCULATIONS................................................................................................. 658.1 Model Validation ................................................................................................................ 658.2 Sample Calculations............................................................................................................ 66

    8.2.1 Single Phase CO 2 in the Annulus................................................................................. 668.2.2 Multiphase Mixture Case - CO 2 and Water in the Annulus......................................... 72

    CHAPTER 9. CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS................................................ 829.1 Conclusions......................................................................................................................... 829.2 Recommendations............................................................................................................... 83

    REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................. 84

    APPENDIX A. MULTIPHASE FLOW PROPERTY CORRELATIONS .................................. 90

    APPENDIX B. SOLUTION OF HEAT TRANSFER MODEL................................................... 91

    APPENDIX C. CORROSION RATE MODEL ........................................................................... 93

    APPENDIX D. NOMENCLATURE............................................................................................ 95

    VITA........................................................................................................................................... 100

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    v

    LIST OF TABLES

    Table 6.1 Input Required for Heat Transfer Model ...................................................................... 26

    Table 6.2 Heat Transfer Example Input Data ............................................................................... 29

    Table 7.1 Flow Coefficients for Different Inclination Angle Ranges (After Alves 57) ................. 53

    Table 8.1 Comparison Between Field Data and Model Calculated 66 ........................................... 65

    Table 8.2 Main Model Input ......................................................................................................... 66

    Table 8.3 Heat Transfer Model Input ........................................................................................... 66

    Table 8.4 Comparison between Calculated Model and Reported Parameters(Kolle et. al. 69).............................................................................................................. 67

    Table 8.5 Pressure Drop across Bit Nozzle for Different Nozzle Sizes ....................................... 72

    Table 8.6 Bottomhole Pressure and Choke Temperature at IncreasingWater Production Rate.................................................................................................. 73

    Table A.1 Parameters for Calculating Water-CO 2 Mixture Density ............................................ 90

    Table C.1 K t Values ...................................................................................................................... 93

    Table C.2 pH Function.................................................................................................................. 94

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    vi

    LIST OF FIGURES

    Figure 1.1 UBD Fluid Density Ranges ........................................................................................... 3

    Figure 1.2 Candidate UBD Fluids Based on Different Drilling Situations .................................... 4

    Figure 2.1 CO 2 Phase Diagram....................................................................................................... 7

    Figure 2.2 Comparison Between CO 2 and Nitrogen Densities at Various Conditions................... 8

    Figu

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