Aim To gain an understanding of Hate Crimes and Incidents
To understand the importance of recording Hate Crimes and Incidents
Objectives By the end of this session you will understand:
What a Hate Crime is
The difference between a Hate Crime and Hate Incident
The different categories of Hate Crime
Stephen Lawrence murderPublic Enquiry established on 31 July 1997 chaired by Sir William Macpherson
To enquire into matters arising from the death of Stephen Lawrence on 22nd April 1993 in order particularly, to identify the lessons to be learned for the investigation and prosecution of racially motivated crimes.
Report published Feb 1999
70 recommendations for policing and society.
Stephen Lawrence murderStephen Lawrence's murder was simply and solely and unequivocally motivated by racism
Racist incident must be understood to include crimes and non-crimes in policing terms. Both must be reported, recorded and investigated with equal commitment
This definition should be universally adopted by the Police, local Government and other relevant agencies
Any incident which is perceived to be racist by victim or any other person(Recommendation 12, Macpherson Report)
Raceand what else?
DisabilityReligion and belief (or lack of)Sexual orientationTransgender
What is a hate crime?Any incident, which constitutes a criminal offence, perceived by the victim or any other person, as being motivated by prejudice or hate.
What is a hate incident?
Any incident, which may or may not constitute a criminal offence, which is perceived by the victim or any other person as being motivated by prejudice or hate.
PerceptionThe perception of the victim or any other person is the defining factor in determining a hate incident
Hate crimeImportance of Perception
Importance of Non-Crime Incidents
Hostility not hate In the absence of a precise legal definition of hostility, let us consider dictionary definitions including 'unfriendliness', 'antagonism and 'meanness Sir Ken MacDonald, DPP, October 2008
WHY do we deal with Hate Crime in the way we do?
Hate Crime has implications at many levels:
IndividualFamily and friendsLocal CommunityWider Community
Where and when?The majority of hate crimes happen near to the victim's home while they are going about their daily business
An offence is most likely to be committed between 3pm and midnight.
Types of crimePhysical attacks assaults, damage to property including graffiti and arson
Threats offensive letters, malicious communications and harassment
Abuse gestures, words and any other visible representation
Allports Scalefive ways that prejudice can be expressed or acted upon. 1 Antilocution (name calling, stereotyping) 2 Avoidance (defamation by omission, exclusion) 3 Discrimination (refusal of service, denial of opportunity) 4 Physical Attack (threat of physical violence, murder) 5 Extermination (mass assassination, genocide)
David (Ray) Atherton
Last seen 9th May 2006
Reported missing 12th May
Body discovered 16th May in River Mersey, Warrington
David (Ray) Atherton
2 youths Palin & Dodd pleaded not guilty to murder but guilty to manslaughter
Sentenced to 3 and half years minimum term.
Sophie Lancaster& Jody Dobrowski
In August 2007, Sophie Lancaster was kicked to death, simply for dressing differently
Jody Dobrowski 24, was murdered on Clapham Common in South London, around midnight on the October 14 2005.
QuestionsShould the following be recorded as a Hate Crime?
A woman suffers Criminal Damage with the words Fat Bitch sprayed on her car.
A young boy with Ginger hair is assaulted and called a Ginger bastard
QuestionsShould the following be recorded as a Hate Crime?An Iranian family has a note put through the door saying Go back where you came from. The following day someone shouts, Go home as the father goes to the shop.
Male offender goes to a well known public sex location and picks up another male. He drives to a park and seriously assaults the victim.
Reporting Centres Our aim is to enable anyone in the community to report hate incidents with confidence to a local reporting centre.
We are committed to making the people of Cheshire safe and feel safe.
Reporting Centres 3rd Party Centres will record details of ANY incidents reported to them as being hate motivated. No restrictions are placed on where the incident took place. Schools, work, home and public places will be recorded if the centre is informed about it.
Reporting Centres Anonymous
Victim Centred Response
Referral / Case Conference
Gordon Allport a psychologist
Allports Scale of Prejudice within society goes from 1 5.Scale 1, AntilocutionAntilocution means a majority group freely make jokes about a minority group. Speech is in terms of negative stereotypes and negative images.  This is also called hate speech . It is commonly seen as harmless by the majority. Antilocution itself may not be harmful, but it sets the stage for more severe outlets for prejudice. (e.g.Ethnic jokes) Scale 2 AvoidancePeople in a minority group are actively avoided by members of the majority group. No direct harm may be intended, but harm is done through isolation. (e.g. Social exclusion) Scale 3 DiscriminationMinority group is discriminated against by denying them opportunities and services and so putting prejudice into action. Behaviors have the specific goal of harming the minority group by preventing them from achieving goals, getting education or jobs, etc. The majority group is actively trying to harm the minority. (e.g. Jim Crow laws, Apartheid) Scale 4 Physical AttackThe majority group vandalize, burn or destroy minority group property and carry out violent attacks on individuals or groups. Physical harm is done to members of the minority group. Examples are lynchings of blacks, pogroms against Jews in Europe and British Loyalists in the 1700s. Scale 5 ExterminationThe majority group seeks extermination or removal of the minority group. They attempt to eliminate either the entire or a large fraction of a group of people (e.g., Indian Wars to remove Native Americans, American lynchings, Final Solution to the "Jewish Question" in Germany, The Armenian Genocide in the Ottoman Empire, the Rwandan Genocide, and ethnic cleansing in Bosnia).