ai-cl_introArtificial Intelligence: An easy introduction from a computational linguistic perspective

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    Artificial Intelligence (AI) Computational Linguistics (CL) The TALK project Learning software project

    Artificial Intelligence:

    An easy introduction from a

    computational linguistic perspective

    Ciprian-Virgil Gerstenberger

    Saami Language Technology, Giellatekno, University of Troms, Norway

    24.11.2011 University of Murmansk

    http://find/
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    Artificial Intelligence (AI) Computational Linguistics (CL) The TALK project Learning software project

    Outline

    Artificial Intelligence (AI)

    http://find/
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    Artificial Intelligence (AI) Computational Linguistics (CL) The TALK project Learning software project

    Outline

    Artificial Intelligence (AI)

    Computational Linguistics (CL)

    The TALK project

    http://find/
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    Artificial Intelligence (AI) Computational Linguistics (CL) The TALK project Learning software project

    Outline

    Artificial Intelligence (AI)

    Computational Linguistics (CL)

    The TALK project

    Learning software project

    http://find/
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    Artificial Intelligence (AI) Computational Linguistics (CL) The TALK project Learning software project

    What is Artificial Intelligence?

    What is artificial?

    all human made

    What is intelligence?

    the capacity to learn and solve problems(Webster dictionary)

    the ability to think and act rationally

    C C

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    Artificial Intelligence (AI) Computational Linguistics (CL) The TALK project Learning software project

    Definitions

    Artificial Intelligence is a branch of Science which deals with helpingmachines find solutions to complex problems in a more human-likefashion. This generally involves borrowing characteristics from humanintelligence, and applying them as algorithms in a computer friendlyway.

    http://ai-depot.com/Intro.html

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the area of computer science focusing oncreating machines that can engage on behaviors that humansconsider intelligent.

    http://library.thinkquest.org/2705/

    A tifi i l I t lli (AI) C t ti l Li i ti (CL) Th TALK j t L i ft j t

    http://ai-depot.com/Intro.htmlhttp://library.thinkquest.org/2705/http://library.thinkquest.org/2705/http://ai-depot.com/Intro.htmlhttp://find/
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    Artificial Intelligence (AI) Computational Linguistics (CL) The TALK project Learning software project

    Measuring intelligence: Turing

    The Turing Test (1950)

    The computer is interrogated by a human via a teletype. It the

    test passes if the human cannot tell if there is a computer or

    human at the other end.

    http://www.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs/academic/class/15381-s07/www/slides/011607comboIntro.pdf

    Is this test sufficient?

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) Computational Linguistics (CL) The TALK project Learning software project

    http://www.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs/academic/class/15381-s07/www/slides/011607comboIntro.pdfhttp://www.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs/academic/class/15381-s07/www/slides/011607comboIntro.pdfhttp://find/
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    Artificial Intelligence (AI) Computational Linguistics (CL) The TALK project Learning software project

    Measuring intelligence: Searle

    The Chinese Room Argument John Searle (1980)

    An English man knowing no Chinese locked in a room with Chinesesymbols(a data base)and a book of instruction for manipulating the

    symbols(the program)would get Chinese symbols which, unknownto the person in the room, are questions in Chinese (the input). Byfollowing the instruction in the program the man is able to pass outChinese symbols which are correct answers to the questions (theoutput).

    The program enables the person in the room to pass the TuringTest for understanding Chinese but he does not understand a word ofChinese.

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) Computational Linguistics (CL) The TALK project Learning software project

    http://find/
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    Artificial Intelligence (AI) Computational Linguistics (CL) The TALK project Learning software project

    Intelligent systems

    http://www.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs/academic/class/15381-s07/www/slides/011607comboIntro.pdf

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) Computational Linguistics (CL) The TALK project Learning software project

    http://www.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs/academic/class/15381-s07/www/slides/011607comboIntro.pdfhttp://www.cs.cmu.edu/afs/cs/academic/class/15381-s07/www/slides/011607comboIntro.pdfhttp://find/http://goback/
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    Artificial Intelligence (AI) Computational Linguistics (CL) The TALK project Learning software project

    Intelligent systems

    Key steps of a knowledge-based agent (Craik, 1943):

    thestimulusmust be translated into an internalrepresentation

    humans sensoric organs vs. machines sensors

    therepresentationis manipulated by cognitive processesto derive new internal representations

    humans representation? memory

    these in turn are translated into action complex with humans sometimes unpredictable

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) Computational Linguistics (CL) The TALK project Learning software project

    http://find/
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    Artificial Intelligence (AI) Computational Linguistics (CL) The TALK project Learning software project

    Complexity and Efficiency

    Solving problems

    huge computational complexity

    Does the intelligent system answer at all? space-time trade-offs

    Does the intelligent systems answer in reasonable time?

    optimizing the search by use of domain knowledge

    heuristics pruning

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) Computational Linguistics (CL) The TALK project Learning software project

    http://find/
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    Artificial Intelligence (AI) Computational Linguistics (CL) The TALK project Learning software project

    Approaches to AI: Classification

    Bottom-Up:

    the machine will discover the world on its own,the way humans do

    Top-Down: learning occurs from what is already known

    What is the bottom?

    observed data What is the top?

    abstractions; data models

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) Computational Linguistics (CL) The TALK project Learning software project

    http://find/http://goback/
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    g ( ) p g ( ) p j g p j

    Basic tasks

    Searching

    filtering material of a certain type

    Recognizing patterns

    abstracting; classifying Constraint solving

    satisfying a number of limitations

    Reasoning (with uncertain information)

    drawing conclusions; deduction; induction

    Learning

    world changing; maintaining an accurate model; dynamicity

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) Computational Linguistics (CL) The TALK project Learning software project

    http://find/
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    g ( ) p g ( ) p j g p j

    Approaches to AI: Examples

    Pattern Recognition

    Expert Systems

    Human-Computer Interaction

    Games

    Auction design

    Diagnosis

    Neural Networks and Parallel Computation

    Evolutionary Computation and Planning

    Genetic Algorithms

    Logic Programming

    Robotics

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    Artificial Intelligence (AI) Computational Linguistics (CL) The TALK project Learning software project

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    AI and Computational Linguistics

    Computational Linguistics: central role within AI

    Automatic Speech Recognition

    one of the oldest pattern recognition tasks

    Machine-Translation

    ETAP-1 Russian English (starting in 1970s) Google services

    Human-Machine Interaction

    dialogue modeling dialogue systems

    Artificial Intelligence (AI) Computational Linguistics (CL)